fusion mri evaluation: Topics by avesisland.info
Dance and play, let songs be sung; Let sweet love your bosoms fire. but by applying the internal combustion engine to a propellor that could beat the air not .. but they found place also for such episodes as the death of Adam, the Queen of .. and about Bernardo Rossellino supplied plans for the Florentine- THE. [email protected][email protected] Angola 81 [email protected]@ Angolan 18 [email protected]@n 7 k&ndLwIk candour 55 [email protected] candy k&ndI candy 5 2 Inr&p enzyme 56 EnzaIm epaulet 23 [email protected] epee 1 13 [email protected] flirt 10 fl3t flirt 66 fl3t flirtation 48 fl3teISN . In that year we had a total of steamboats, 85 propellers, brigs, and in July his successor, Colonel B. J. Sweet, arrived firom Washington and took In the North Division the devastation was the most widespread, fuilly insurance companies tried too much-The episode in the Tribune office-A "red .
Good out of evil-Some wholesome effects of adversity Business faults corrected-Aristocracy scotched out-How fire purifies-How individuals may attain improvement-How the body politic-How humanity-The sublimest spectacle of the century, XXV[II. The new Chicago-Five years hence-Why Chicago will keep marching on-Rate of recuperation-Railroads and traffic Changes in the appearance of the city-Harbor and river-Things which will not be improved-Population inClark and Randolph Streets.
Lasalle and Washington Sts. New Th onor6e Block. Church of the Holy Name. First Presbyterian Church, south side. New England Church, Congrega tional. J, seph's Priory, German Catholic. Masonic Temple in ruins. Chamber of Commerce, before the fire. Chamber of Commerce, after the fire. Where the fire begun. First National Bank, before the fire. First National Bank, after the fire. F TIHE terrible conflagration in Chicago will long be remem bered as one of the most prominent events of the nineteenth century.
In the evening of Sunday, October 8,a stable took fire, and within twenty-four hours thereafter the flames had swept over an area of more than twenty-one hulndred acres, destroying nearly three hundred human lives, reducing seventeen thousand five hundred buildings to ashes, rendering one hundred thousand persons homeless, and sweeping out of existence two hundred million dollars' worth of property.
Without a peer in her almost magical growth to what seemed to be an enduring prosperity, the city of Chicago experienced a catastrophe almost equally without a parallel in history, and the sad event awakened into active sympathy the whole civilized world. Such intense anxiety to catch every item of intelligence about the great conflagration, such a spontaneous outburst of liberality in aiding the sufferers, has never before been exhibited, except in times of national disaster.
As the greatest primary market for produce on the face of the globe, Chicago had long been regarded as the cornucopia of modern civilization, while the energy and enterprise of her citizens had made her an object of envy to many other cities, and the wonder of the world. Her fame had spread far and near, and not even Solomon, inll all his glory, ever excited so much admiration among those who went to see and found that the half had not been told them.
The present volume is intended to supply the wide-spread popular desire to obtain full and accurate information, in permanent form, about Chicago in her prosperity and affliction.
It contains a concise resume of her previous history; a statement of her condition just before the fire; a graphic account of the great conflagration; a carefillly-revised suiimmary of losses of life and property; a description of the aspect of the city after the sad event; a history of thie exertions made to aid the sufferers; with a review of the subsequent efforts made to rebuild the city'mrnid the ashes of its former greatness.
The Ancestor's Tale
HICAGO is situated on the south-western bend of Lake Michigan, at the head of the great chain of American lakes, and is nearly feet above the sea-level, the height of the lake-surface being feet. What is now the business portion of the city was originally but a few inches above the lake-level, and the surface was often covered with several inches of water for months together. It is only within the past few years that the place has been raised from seven to ten feet by the process of filling in, so as to give a drainage that permits of the cleanliness that is necessary to the health of the inhabitants.
The average annual fall of rain is inches; the average temperature is about 50 degrees. The longitude west from Greenwich is 5h. The city is surrounded by what is, relatively, almost a dead-level; the prairie stretching away to a distance of several hundred miles south, west, and north, with scarcely an undulation of importance. Within the city limits the western shore of the lake runs nearly due north and south, trending about two points to the west of north.
One-eighth of a mile north of the Court house line a bayou strikes westward to the distance of five eighths of a mile, then divides into two branches, both of which run nearly parallel with the lake-shore for a considerable distance. Near the end of the south branch a canal commniences, which extends to the Illinois River at Lasalle, a distance of ninety-six miles.
This canal has recently been deepened, so that the waters of the lake flow slowly along the "river" and the canal, into the Illinois River, and thence into the Mississippi. If the bayou at Chicago were a "river," it would furnish an instance of that wonderful phenomenon, "water running up hill. The banks of this river and its branches have furnished the dockage of Chicago, and, at the time of the great catastrophe, all the available space was so fully occupied that large systems of additional docks were being constructed along the lake-shore, outside what was usually known as the "harbor.
The place where the property changed hands was also the place where it would change ownership, as the smaller quantities laid down there would need to be massed into larger amounts for the long lakejourney in great vessels. That fact attracted capital to the spot, and then another point was soon developed: The growers of produce would spend their money in the place where they sold their property, if they could there find what they wanted on as favorable terms as elsewhere.
And thus Chicago grew, in her double function of receiver and forwarder of Western produce to the East and to Europe, and of distributor of other necessaries and luxuries to the tillers of the soil and the manifold industries that clustered around them.
With this came the establishment of numerous manufactories for the supply of the wants both of the city and of the country beyond, and the adoption of many processes by which the property in transit was better adapted to the wants of the buyer.
These built up the city on the foundations laid by nature. The position with respect to the surrounding country established the place as the natural depot for collection and distribution in both directions; the enterprise and energy of the men who were attracted thither by those natural advantages did the rest.
The result of the operation of these two sets of causes, was a rapidity of growth that scarcely finds a parallel in the history of the world. That was the scale on which Chicago was developed, from the time of her incorporation as a city, intill the memorable catastrophe in And the events of the short period that has elapsed since the calamity tend to show that she will exhibit as great a ratio of growth in the future.
The history of such a wonderful progress can not but be of intense interest to millions of readers. OR many centuries before Chicago was visited by a white man, it was the home of the Red-skins, and appears to have been successively occupied by several Indian tribes. There can be no doubt that the place was a favorite rendezvous for Indians, as it afforded facilities for fishing, and formed the terminus of a long route of canoe travel, the divide between the waters of the Mississippi and the Illinois River being so shallow as to necessitate but a very short portage.
The earliest of these tribes of which we have any record was the Tamaroas, the most powerful of many Illinois families, and who claimed the name Checaqua as that of a long succession of their chiefs, just as Pharaoh was the name of many successive Egyptian kings. It was subsequently visited by two other French explorers, Hiennepin and La Salle. The first geographical notice of the place is found in a map, dated Quebec, Canada,on which "Fort Checagou" occupies the exact location of the present city, and the form of Lake Michigan is represented quite correctly.
In other old works it is called the "Chacaqua or Divine River. The name "Chicago" has been variously interpreted to mean "Skunk," or Pole-cat, an animal supposed to have abounded there, and "Wild Onion," after the herb which is known to have grown profusely on the banks of the creek. But the above historical facts tend to prove that the word had a much nobler meaning; added to which, we know that the word Ohecaque was used as the name of thunder, or the voice of the Great Manitou.
It has been suggested, however, that all of the above intentions may be harmonized, if we attach to the name the meaning of' strong," as it is well known that the Indian speech contained many more of these incongruous congruities than are to be found in the languages of the present day. The Indians retained undisturbed possession of the site long after the whites had beg-an to settle in the West. Hence the southern part of the present State of Illinois contained a considerable white population, while the wolf and the Red man only disputed with each other possession of all north of the State capital Springfieldexcept in the little patch of ground occupied by the United States at the entrance of the Chicago harbor.
Illinois was first organized as a county of Virginia inand was made a separate territory inbut the territorial lines did not include Chicago; the northern boundary running due west from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan to the Mississippi. Nathaniel Pope, just elected to represent the territory in Congress, procured the passage of an act extending the northern line of the territory to degrees of latitude, thus giving to the State a most valuable line of lake frontage, which now contains the three harbors of Chicago, Calumet, and Waukegan.
The territory was elevated to the dignity of a State inthe capital being Kaskaskia. Shadrach Bond, of that city, was elected as the first governor, in October of the same year. The influx of settlers from the south was now quite rapid, but the immediate effect of the movement was to cause the different tribes of Illinois Indians to crowd northward, and make the site of Chicago alive with red-skins, who clung all the more pertinaciously to the soil, as the finger of fate pointed to their removal farther west at no distant day.
The business of trading for furs became an important one, and traders gathered in the vicinity to purchase their stocks and send them eastward.
This traffic was first established about the beginning of the present century, and marked a prominent phase in the history of the location. HE year following his first visit to Chicago, Pere Mar quette returned, and erected a building for the purposes of worship.
The French subsequently formed a plan to extend their possessions from Canada, along the Mississippi Valley, to New Orleans, and thence to sweep the continent eastward. They seem to have built a fort at Chicago, as a link in their great chain of domination. Canada was transferred to England by the victories of Wolfe inand the fort was then abandoned.
After the close of the war of the Revolution the Indians became very troublesome, owing to British intrigue, and only after having been effectively chastised by General Wayne did thev consent to a treaty of peace, inthe chiefs of many tribes assembling at Greenville, Ohio, to sign the compact. Among the articles signed we find one recording the first land-sale in Chicago, and furnishing the only clue we have to the first erection of the fort by the French. The Indians ceded to the United States "one piece of land, six miniles square, at the mouth of the Chlekajo River, emptying into the southwest end of Lake Michigan, where a fort formerly stood.
This first amendment to the copper color whose race has since risen to the dignity of the fifteenth degree settled there in His name was Jean Baptiste Point au Sable.
He built a rude cabin on the north bank of the main "river,'? A few years later he sold out to John Kinzie, who was then an Indian trader in the country about St. Joseph, Michigan, nearly opposite Chicago, on the eastern shore of the lake. Kinzie was an agent of the American Fur Company. They had traded at Chicago with the Indians for some time, and this fact had probably more than any other to do with the determination of the Government to establish a fort there.
The Indians were growing numerous in that region, being attracted by the facilities for selling their wares, as well as being pressed northward by the tide of emigration setting in from the south. It was judged necessary to have some force near that point to keep them in check, as well as to protect the trading interest.
Louisiana was purchased from the French ingiving to the United States the control of the entire Mississippi Valley.
In a fort was built by the Government, named "Fort Dearborn," in honor of a general of that name, and garrisoned with about fifty men and three pieces of artillery.
Kinzie removed his family to the p lace the same year, and improved the Jean Baptiste cabin into a tasteful dwelling. His son, John H. For about eight years things rolled along smoothly. The garrison was quiet, and the traders were prosperous, the number of the latter having been considerably increased. Then the United States became involved in trouble with Great Britain, which finally broke out into the war-flame. The Indians took the war-p ath long before the declaration of hostilities between the two civilized nations.
For some months they continued to harass and rob the outside settlers. The Government finally decided to abandon the fort, as it was too remote from headquarters to be successfully maintained in a hostile country. On the 7th of August,Captain Hleald, the commander, received orders to evacuate the fort, if practicable; and, in that event, to distribute all the United States property among the Indians in the neighborhood. He hesitated for five days, knowing that a special order had been issued by the War Department to the effect that no fort should be surrendered "without battle having been given.
On the 12th instant the Indians assembled in council, and Captain Hieald informed them that he would distribute among them, on the next day, all the ammunition and provisions, as well as the other goods lodged in the United States factory, on condition that the Pottawatomies would furnish a safe escort for him and his command to Fort Wayne, where they should receive a further liberal reward.
The Indians acceded to these terms, but MIr. Kinzie, who had learned the treachery of Indian character by long experience, afterward prevailed on Captain Heald to destroy all the liquor and the ammunition not needed b,- the troops on the journey. The next day the blankets, calicoes, and provisions were disti'ibuted as agreed upon, and in the evening the liquors were thrown into the water, with all the ammunition, except twentyfive rounds, and one box of cartridges.
They also broke up all the spare muskets and gun-fixtures, and threw them into the well. In the afternoon another council was held, at which the Pottawatomies professed to be highly indignant at the destruction of the whisky and ammunition, and made numerous threats, which plainly showed their murderous intention, only too well carried out on the ensuing day.
On the morning of the 15th August,the troops left the fort. Kinzie, with her family of four children, two domestics, and two Indians, took a boat, intending to cross the lake to St. Joseph, but remained at the mouth of the harbor during the subsequent carnage, then returned to their home. The military party went southward, intending to march round the head of the lake. They had only proceeded about a mile and a half, when they were attacked by a party of Indians, who were concealed by a sand -ridge, whom they charged and dislodged from the position; but the Indialns were so numerous that a party of them were able to outflank the soldiers, and take the horses and baggage.
A severe fight followed, in which the number of the soldiers was reduced to twenty-eight; and during that action a young savage tomahawked the entire party of twelve children, who were in the baggage-wagon.
Captain Heald then withldrew his troops, and a parley ensued, the consequence of which was that the troops surrendered, on condition that their lives should be sparedand were miarchled backl to the fort, which was plundered and burilned the next day. Kinzie did duty as surgeon, extracting the bullets with his penl-knife. We believe the facts to have been as above stated. The total number of killed was fifty-two, which included twenty-six soldiers, twelve militiamen, two women, and twelve children.
The prisoners were ransomed some time afterward, the Kinzie family being taken across the lake to St. Joseph and thence to Detroit, a few days after the massacre. OR four years the place was deserted by all save the In dians. Even the fur-traders did not care to visit the scene of so much disaster, and Chicago seemed to have been remanded into aboriginal darkness.
Inthe fort was rebuilt, under the direction of Captain Bradley, and was thereafter occupied continuously by United States troops for twenty-one years, except for a short time in Init was abandoned, as the Indians had been removed far to the westward.
The fort stood, however, tillwhen the old block-house was demolished. Its position was on the southl bank of the river, just east of the place where Rushl Street Bridge was afterward built. One old building, however, remained, almost rotten with age, till the great conflagration swept it away, as the last relic of military rule. It was a small wooden structure that had formied a part of the officers' quarters, and stood almost in the apex of the sharp corner formed by the meeting of iMichigan Avenue with River Street.
Kinzie did not return till some time after the fort was reconstructed. He came in a small schooner, which was sent there once a year with provisions for the garrison. On his arrival he found only two families on the site of the future city, outside the fort.
John Kinzie lived on the north side of the river, nearly on the line of Michigan Avenue; and Antoine Oulimette, a French trader, who had married an Indian woman, residal 0on the same side, about two blocks further west. Beaubien arrived about the same time. Inone more h. Inhe built a slaughter-hlouse and entered into business as butcher for the fort. He has resided in Chicago ever since thlen, and was alive very recently.
HE project to connect the Mississippi River with Lake Michigan, by a canal from the lake to the Illinois River, was tile real cause of the up-growth of Chicago. The commercial advantages of the site as the terminus of that avenue of water communication, first attracted attention to Chicago, and led to the gathering of a most important community long before the canal was completed, or even begun. The measure was first agitated as a needed means of connection between the southern part of the State and the Atlantic Ocean, much shorter than that afforded by the Mississippi-a secondary consideration being the great value of a ship canal, connecting the two great water-courses of the continent, in case of another war with a European power.
That measure, designed for the benefit of the south, then the only settled part of the State, has resulted in attracting to the northern portion a tide of emigration, and an abundance of capital, that has thrown the southern counties into a comparative shade, though ministering largely to their development.
Governor Bond, of Illinois, pressed it upon the attention of the Legislatutre, in the very first gubernatorial message ever delivered in the State-in His successor, Governor Coles, also urged its importance in ; and an act was passed in February 14appointing a Board of Inspectors, who made a tour of inspection in the year following. On the 30th of March,Congress had passed an act, by which the State was authorized to make the survey through the public lands, and reserving ninety feet on each side of the canal from any sale made by the United States.
It was conditioned, however, that if the State did not survey, and within three years direct the canal to be opened, or if the canal should not be completed within twelve years, that the grant should be void. On the 13th of January,the Legislature passed an act incorporating the Illinois and Michigan Canal Company, with a capital of one million dollars, but no one was found willing to take the stock, and the charter was subsequently repealed.
The matter was again taken up by Congress, principally through the exertion of Hon. Cook, from whomr was afterward named the county in which Chicago is situated. Congress granted to the State every alternate section in a belt of land six miles wide on each side of the proposed canal, provided that the work should be commenced within five years, and completed within twenty years; otherwise the State should pay to the United States all the money received for lands previously sold.
These commissioners were directed to select the State lands, and to sell them where they thought proper to do so, and to lay off certain parts into town lots. This was the commencement of the system of land grants, which has since been so extensively adopted in the United States, and upon this action was laid the foundation of the future city of Chicago. He made a survey of the site, and the first map of the city was prepared by him; it bears date August 4, The canal was not commenced tilland the year had arrived before it was completed, and then on a much inferior plan to that at first proposed, but the effect was wonderful.
The benefits of the measure were long antedated by the enterprising people, who saw that the completion of the work would establish a mighty commercial depot at the head of Lake Michigan; indeed, they, and those who came after them, have always been noted for the rapidity with which they could d liscount the advantages of an event long before its occurrence. So with the canal. The place had grown to the dimensions of a city before the first sod was turned, and fell into the slough of despond long before it was finished.
The tide of emigration had set westward, to a limited extent, during the agitation of the canal measure, but the settlement of the West was retarded by the hostility of the Indians, who were particularly restless inmurdering several emigrants and menacing the fort with destruction.
A large military force, under General Atkinson, restored order. The country was filling up to the westward, as the fertility of the rich prairies became known to the people of the East and of Europe.
But the site of Chicago was still as barren and uninviting as when visited by Major Long in Near the fort, and again near the junction of the two branches with the main river, the land was relatively high; but between those points, and all around, was a low, wet prairie, only a few inches above the lake-level, and subject to inundation with every shower.
An early writer says that it "scarcely afforded good walking in the driest summer weather, while at other seasons it was absolutely impassable. It is no wonder that, inwhen Surveyor Thompson began his labors, he found only seven families there,outside the fort.
Two of these, Mr. Kinzie and his brother-in-law, Dr. Wolcott, the Indian agent, lived on the north side of the river; John Beaubien lived on the south side, near the fort, and John Miller kept a log tavern near the fork, besides which three or four Indian traders, whose names have not been preserved, lived in what is now the West Division.
Hubbard was not then a resident; he was frequently there for several weeks at a time, but did not locate permanently till The first'map of the future city August 4, only embraced an area of about three-eighths of a square mile, the boundaries being Madison, Desplaines, Kinzie, and State Streets. The next step in the work of preparation for future occupancy, was the organization of Cook County, March 4,the limits of which included the whole tract now comprising the counties of Cook, Dupage, Lake, McHenry, Will, and Iroquois.
Chicago is nearly midway on the eastern border of the present county. Two companies of troops then occupied the fort. In this year the number of male citizen residents had increased to fifteen, including the Government blacksmith, and Billy Caldwell, the Indian chief, who acted as interpreter for the agency.
Not less than three of these kept tavern. Among the new arrivals, those who subsequently figured prominently in the history of the city, were George W. Besides these, Russell E. Heacock resided three or four miles up the south branch of the river, and Archibald Clybourne on the north branch. In this year emigration set in so vigorously that by midsummer all the available buildings in the city were crowded with families, and several were obliged to seek accommodations at the fort, though many of those arriving intended to proceed further west.
So great was the pressure that the infant Court of County Commissioners felt called upon to legislate for the protection of travelers, and ordered that tavern-keepers should only charge twenty-five cents for each half pint of wine, rum, or brandy; twelve and a half cents for half a pint of whisky; twelve and a half cents for one night's lodging, and twentyfive cents for breakfast or supper. No less than four additional taverns were opened that year; licenses were granted to three persons to practice as merchants, and James A.
Kinzie was promoted to the dignity of auctioneer. His first official act was to sell, in July, a portion of the ten acres previously deeded to the county of Cook, of which the present Court-house square is a part.
In the latter part of September,about four thousand Indians assembled in Chicago to receive the Government annuity, which was paid by Colonel T. The terror of the residents at the scenes of drunkenness and debauchery that followed the payment, was deepened by the rumor that a deputation of Sauks and Foxes, belonging to the band of the notorious Black Hawk, was present, endeavoring to unite the Ottawas, Pottawatomies, and Chippewas, to join in an invasion of the Rock River country and drive out the white settlers.
Their design was thwarted by the chief, Billy Caldwell, who used all his influence in favor of peace. The lake commerce of was quite large, not less than three vessels arriving during the year, one of which came to carry away the troops to Green Bay. The others were the Telegraph, from Ashtabula, Ohio, and the Marengo, from Detroit; the former brought a stock of goods, as well as many emigrants.
The fort had been vacated by the soldiers in June, leaving it free for occupancy by the emigrants, of whom about four hutndred took up their quarters there in September. Most of these stayed there through the winter, which was a long one, and so bitterly cold that most of the other residents of the place also took refuge in the fort, for the double purpose of companionship and protection-the latter not more from the Indians than from the prairie-wolves, which were very numerous.
The only communication they had with the outside world was effected by a half-breed Indian, who visited Niles, Michigan, once in two weeks, on foot, and brought in whatever papers he could procure-there were few letters in those days. The long winter evenings were "improved" by a debating society, occasional dances, and a weekly religious meeting, on the Methodist plan.
It is noteworthy that in the first ferry was established across the river-there were then no bridges. Early inChicago was startled by the intelligence that Black Hawk, with a party of five hundred braves, was advancing on the settlements on Rock River. By the middle of May there were fully seven hundred people in the fort, twothirds of whom were women and children, many of the men having driven their stock farther south, in search of a more favorable location.
A "council" was now called, at which the Indians at first seemed anxious to join the marauders, but finally consented to send out one hundred braves against them, if desired. In May a force of twenty-five men was organized at the fort, under command of Captain J. Brown, to scour the country.
They were joined by a force of three thousand militia, and a detachment of regular troops from Rock Island, under command of General Atkinson. The Indians were finally routed, and Black Hawk delivered up a prisoner of war, on the twenty-seventh of August, In September, a treaty was concluded at Fort Armstrong Rock Islandby which the Indians agreed to remove west of the Missouri, on condition that they should receive an annuity, and that a reservation of forty miles square should be set off to Keokuk, their principal chief.
Scott was ordered to proceed to the West, to take part in the Black Hawk war. The cholera attacked the soldiers on the lake, and so many were prostrated that a large number were landed at Fort Gratiot, now Port Huron. The remainder proceeded to Chicago, where they communicated the infection both to the garrison and the people outside.
The war was ended by the volunteers before General Scott could take part in the conflict, but he carried back with him such glowing accounts of the place that general attention was attracted to it, and, chiefly through his recommendation, Congress subsequently made the first appropriation for the improvement of the harbor. The autumn of this year,witnessed'he commencement of the packing trade in Chicago. Dole erected the first frame building, and immediately afterward began the slaIghltering of two hundred cattle, which he had bought on the Wabash River, at two and three-quarter cents per pound.
The same winter he slaughtered three hundred and fifty hogs, for which he had given three cents per pound, live weight. This was the beginning of a business, for which Chicago afterward became as famous as for her grain and lumber trade. She surpassed Cincinnati in the total exhibit of hogs slaugrtered, in the winter ofand up to the time of the great catastrophe had steadily kept in the advance of that city, wresting from her, and retaining, the right to be called the world's Porkopolis.
The year was marked by a considerable increase in the population and importance of the city. Among the new citizens who afterward became prominent, were Dr. Kimberly, Philo Carpenter, J. South Water Street was formally extended to the lake, across Government property, from State Street eastward, and a road was surveyed to give communication with the southern part of the State.
Jesse Walker, a missionary of the Methodist Episcopal Church, built a log hut west of the fort, for divine worship. This place was called "Wolf Point," and an intense rivalry sprung up, about this time, between the dwellers there and those in the vicinity of the fort. Of course there was then no Court-house. The sessions of the County Commissioners, and of the Circuit Court, were generally held in the fort. The first building erected on the public square was an estray pen, put up inon the southwestern corner, at a total cost of twelve dollars.
But though poor, the county was not in debt; those were happy days compared with the present, when the great calamity has piled up an enormous loss on the top of a city debt of fourteen and a half millions of dollars.
The next year,the place grew apace. An appropriation of thirty thousand dollars was made by Congress for the improvement of the harbor, and work was at once commenced. At that time the main channel was narrower than now, and instead of running in an almost straight line into the lake, it turned short to the southward, round the fort, to a point near the present foot of Madison Street, and there connected with the lake over a bar of sand and gravel, the water on which was about fifteen yards wide, and only a few inches in depth.
Vessels arriving at the port were obliged to anchor outside, and discharge or take on cargo by the aid of boats. In the following spring, a great freshet washed out more sand from the channel than had been removed by the dredges, but at the same time it swept away some six hundred feet of piling that had just been built to protect the south shore. It was now believed that a permanent harbor had been gained, which would never more be choked up.
Subsequent experience has shown the fallacy of this hope, as continuous expenditures have been necessitated to keep open a passage for vessels.
This was but one of the many extensions made in A jail was built "of logs, firmly bolted together," on the northwest corner of the Court-house square, which stood there for just twenty years, when it was superseded by the Court-house. The first regular postmaster was appointed, in the person of J.
Hogan, the keeper of a variety store on South Water Street, though a gentleman named Bailey is reported to have previously officiated in that capacity. Hogan's office is currently reported to have been graced with a number of old boot-legs, nailed up against the wall, which did duty as private boxes for such of the citizens as were honored with the most extensive correspondence.
This year, too, was marked by the establishment of no less than three church societies. The First Presbyterian was organized June 26th, with a membership of nine citizens and twenty-five members of the garrison, by Rev. Schaffer commenced the erection of a Catholic church-edifice, which was completed the following year. The Methodists also held their first quarterly meeting in the autumn, with John Sinclair as Presiding Elder.
Another memorable event of was a gathering of about seven thousand Pottawatomie Indians, on the 27th of September, at which a most important treaty was made.
It is reported that not less than twenty thousand dollars' worth of the goods were stolen by the Indian traders during the first two nights, after the owners had been liberally saturated with whisky, for which they had paid out a large proportion of the articles furnished them.
A letter from a traveler, who witnessed the scenes, was unearthed and published in the Tribune in We are sorry that the destruction of the files of that paper in the great confiagration prevents us from reproducing it.
The description there given of the disgusting revels of the red men, and the rapacity of the whites, was almost enough to make one lose faith in human nature. The great event of the year was, however, the incorporation of Chicago as a town. A public meeting was held August 5th, to decide whether the important step should be taken or not.
An election was held on the 10th of the same month, at the house of Mark Beaubien, the original Charon of the place, who was also noted as the keeper of two fast horses; and we give the following as the list of voters on the occasion, which probably comprised every legal voter in the place, except one, as Heacock resided outside; about six others had arrived just previous to the election, who were afterward voters: Another was greedy for cream, and would knock the chess board over when losing.
A third was a country doctor. That is about my limit. How have eight entire lives been so reduced? How, when the chain of informants connecting us back to the eyewitness seems so short, and human conversation so rich, could all those thousands of personal details that made up the lifetimes of eight human individuals be so fast forgotten? Frustratingly, oral tradition peters out almost immediately, unless hallowed in bardic recitations like those that were eventually written down by Homer, and even then the history is far from accurate.
It decays into nonsense and falsehood after amazingly few generations. Historical facts about real heroes, villains, animals and volcanoes rapidly degenerate or blossom, depending upon your taste into myths about demigods, devils, centaurs and fire-breathing dragons. Writing is a huge improvement. Paper, papyrus and even stone tablets may wear out or decay, but written records have the potential to be copied accurately for an indefinite number of generations, although in practice the accuracy is not total.
I should explain the special sense in which I mean accuracy and, indeed, the special sense in which I mean generations. But if you write with care, and if I painstakingly match each of your squiggles with exactly one from our shared alphabet, your message has a good chance of being copied by me with total accuracy. It works because letters of a true alphabet are discontinuous.
The point, reminiscent of the distinction between analogue and digital codes, needs a little more explanation. There exists a consonant sound which is intermediate between the English hard c and g it is the French hard c in comme. But nobody would think of trying to represent this sound by writing a character which looked intermediate between c and g.
We all understand that a written character in English must be one, and only one, member of our letter alphabet. We understand that French uses the same 26 letters for sounds that are not exactly the same as ours and which may be intermediate between ours.
Each language, indeed each local accent or dialect, separately uses the alphabet for self-normalising on different sounds. An eyewitness record of some event, which is written down, as opposed to drawn as a picture, has a good chance of still being accurately reproduced in history books centuries later.
We have what is probably an accurate account of the destruction of Pompeii in 79 AD because a witness, Pliny the Younger, wrote down what he saw, in two epistles to the historian Tacitus, and some of Tacitus's writings survived, by successive copying and eventually printing, for us to read them today.
Even in pre-Gutenberg days when documents were duplicated by scribes, writing represented a great advance in accuracy compared with memory and oral tradition.
It is only a theoretical ideal that repetitive copying retains perfect accuracy. In practice scribes are fallible, and not above massaging their copy to make it say things that they think no doubt sincerely the original document ought to have said.
The most famous example of this, painstakingly documented by nineteenth century German theologians, is the doctoring of New Testament history to make it conform to Old Testament prophecies. But in any case writing cannot take us back beyond its invention, which was only about 5, years ago.
Identification symbols, counting-marks and pictures go back a bit further, perhaps some tens of thousands of years, but all such periods are chickenfeed compared with evolutionary time. Fortunately, when we turn to evolution there is another kind of duplicated information which goes back an almost unimaginably large number of copying generations and which, with a little poetic licence, we can regard as the equivalent of a written text: The DNA information in all living creatures has been handed down from remote ancestors with prodigious fidelity.
We can read this record directly, using the arts of modern molecular biology to spell out the actual DNA letter sequences or, slightly more indirectly, the amino acid sequences of protein into which they are translated. Or, much more indirectly as through a glass darkly, we can read it by studying the embryological products of the DNA: We don't need fossils to peer back into history.
Because DNA changes very slowly through the generations, history is woven into the fabric of modern animals and plants, and inscribed in its coded characters. DNA messages are written in a true alphabet. Like the Roman, Greek and Cyrillic writing systems, the DNA alphabet is a strictly limited repertoire of symbols with no self-evident meaning.
Arbitrary symbols are chosen and combined to make meaningful messages of unlimited complexity and size. Where the English alphabet has 26 letters and the Greek one 24, the DNA alphabet is a four-letter alphabet.
Human languages are numerous and changing, and their dictionaries contain tens of thousands of distinct words, but the word DNA dictionary is universal and unchanging with very minor variations in a few rare cases.
The 20 amino acids are strung into sequences of typically a few hundred, each sequence a particular protein molecule. Whereas the number of letters is limited to four and the number of codons to 64, there is no theoretical limit to the number of proteins that can be spelled out by different sequences of codons. It is beyond all counting.
The genes are not separated from their neighbours whether other genes or repetitive nonsense by any delimiters apart from what can be read from their sequence. And even meaningful stretches of DNA are in many cases never read — presumably they are superseded copies of once useful genes that hang around like early drafts of a chapter on a cluttered hard disk.
Indeed, the image of the genome as an old hard disk, badly in need of a spring clean, is one that will serve us from time to time during the book. It bears repeating that the DNA molecules of long dead animals are not themselves preserved.
The plot of Jurassic Park, though not silly, falls foul of practical facts. Conceivably, for a short while after becoming embalmed in amber, a bloodsucking insect could have contained the instructions needed to reconstruct a dinosaur. But unfortunately, after an organism is dead, the DNA in its body, and in blood that it has sucked, doesn't survive intact longer than a few years — only days in the case of some soft tissues.
Fossilisation doesn't preserve DNA either. Even deep freezing doesn't preserve it for very long. As I write this, scientists are excavating a frozen mammoth from the Siberian permafrost in the hope of extracting enough DNA to grow a new mammoth, cloned in the womb of a modern elephant.
I fear this is a vain hope, though the mammoth is only a few thousand years dead. Among the oldest corpses from which readable DNA has been extracted is a Neanderthal man. Imagine the kerfuffle if somebody managed to clone him. But alas, only disjointed fragments of his 30,year-old DNA can be recovered.
For plants in permafrost, the record is aboutyears. The important point about DNA is that, as long as the chain of reproducing life is not broken, its coded information is copied to a new molecule before the old molecule is destroyed.
In this form, DNA information far outlives its molecules. It is renewable — copied — and since the copies are literally perfect for most of its letters on any one occasion, it can potentially last an indefinitely long time. Understood in this way, the DNA record is an almost unbelievably rich gift to the historian. What historian could have dared hope for a world in which every single individual of every species carries, within its body, a long and detailed text: Moreover, it has minor random changes, which occur seldom enough not to mess up the record yet often enough to furnish distinct labels.
It is even better than that. The text is not just arbitrary. It follows from the fact of Darwinian evolution that everything about an animal or plant, including its bodily form, its inherited behaviour and the chemistry of its cells, is a coded message about the worlds in which its ancestors survived: The message is ultimately scripted in the DNA that fell through the succession of sieves that is natural selection.
When we learn to read it properly, the DNA of a dolphin may one day confirm what we already know from the telltale giveaways in its anatomy and physiology: Three hundred million years earlier, the ancestors of all land-dwelling vertebrates, including the land-dwelling ancestors of dolphins, came out of the sea where they had lived since the origin of life.
Doubtless our DNA records this fact if we could read it. Everything about a modern animal, especially its DNA, but its limbs and its heart, its brain and its breeding cycle too, can be regarded as an archive, a chronicle of its past, even if that chronicle is a palimpsest, many times overwritten.
It is made more powerful if combined with our third method of historical reconstruction, triangulation. It is to this that we now turn, and again we start with the analogous case of human history, specifically the history of languages. Where written records survive it is rather easy. The historical linguist can use the second of our two methods of reconstruction, tracing back renewed relics, in this case words.
But speech obviously goes back long before the invention of writing, and many languages have no written form anyway. For the earlier history of dead languages, linguists resort to a version of what I am calling triangulation.
They compare modern languages and group them hierarchically into families within families. Romance, Germanic, Slavic, Celtic and other European language families are in turn grouped with some Indian language families into Indo-European. They even aspire to reconstruct many of its details by extrapolating back from the shared features of its descendants.
Other language families in other parts of the world, of equivalent rank to Indo-European, have been traced back in the same way, for instance Altaic, Dravidian and Uralic-Yukaghir. Some optimistic and controversial linguists believe they can go back even further, uniting such major families in an even more all-embracing family of families. In this way they have persuaded themselves that they can reconstruct elements of a hypothetical ur-language which they call Nostratic, and which they believe was spoken between 12, and 15, years ago.
Many linguists, while happy about Proto-Indo-European and other ancestral languages of equivalent rank, doubt the possibility of reconstructing a language as ancient as Nostratic. Their professional scepticism reinforces my own amateur incredulity. But there is no doubt at all that equivalent triangulation methods — various techniques for comparing modern organisms — work for evolutionary history, and can be used for penetrating back hundreds of millions of years.
Even if we had no fossils, a sophisticated comparison of modern animals would permit a fair and plausible reconstruction of their ancestors. Just as a linguist penetrates the past to Proto-Indo-European, triangulating from modern languages and from already reconstructed dead languages, we can do the same with modern organisms, comparing either their external characteristics or their protein or DNA sequences.
As the libraries of the world accumulate long and exact DNA listings from more and more modern species, the reliability of our triangulations will increase, particularly because DNA texts have such a large range of overlaps. Even when taken from extremely distant relations, for example humans and bacteria, large sections of DNA still unequivocally resemble each other.
Full text of "The Story of Civilization (Complete)"
And very close relations, such as humans and chimpanzees, have much more DNA in common. If you choose your molecules judiciously, there is a complete spectrum of steadily increasing proportions of shared DNA, all the way in between. Molecules can be chosen which, between them, span the gamut of comparison, from remote cousins like humans and bacteria, to close cousins like two species of frogs.
Resemblances between languages are harder to discern, all except close pairs of languages like German and Dutch. The chain of reasoning that leads some hopeful linguists to Nostratic is tenuous enough to make the links the subject of scepticism on the part of other linguists. Would the DNA equivalent of triangulating to Nostratic be triangulation between, say, humans and bacteria?
But humans and bacteria have some genes that have hardly changed at all since the common ancestor, their equivalent of Nostratic. And the genetic code itself is virtually identical in all species and must have been the same in the shared ancestors. One could say that the resemblance between German and Dutch is comparable to that between any pair of mammals. Human and chimpanzee DNA are so similar, they are like English spoken in two slightly different accents. The resemblance between English and Japanese, or between Spanish and Basque, is so slight that no pair of living organisms can be chosen for analogy, not even humans and bacteria.
Humans and bacteria have DNA sequences which are so similar that whole paragraphs are word-for-word identical. I have been talking about using DNA sequences for triangulation. In principle it works for gross morphological characters as well but, in the absence of molecular information, distant ancestors are about as elusive as Nostratic. With morphological characters, as with DNA, we assume that features shared by many descendants of an ancestor are likely or at least slightly more likely than not to have been inherited from that ancestor.
All vertebrates have a backbone and we assume that they inherited it strictly inherited the genes for growing it from a remote ancestor which lived, the fossils suggest, more than half a billion years ago and also had a backbone.