Recursive Integration over Piecewise Polynomials: Closed form? - Mathematics Stack Exchange
-u File has setuid bit set. -g File has setgid bit set. . For the tangent operation, you may use the Math::Trig::tan function, or use the familiar relation: sub tan This is especially useful for implementing tail recursion via goto __SUB__. When processing multiple files with a single command, to query the user you give .. effective group ID to that of the file upon execution (called the setgid bit). to configure, the recursive implementation is installed as find and the fts-based. For example, the set user ID (setuid) or set group ID (setgid) features of unix or The recursive behavior of the CVS subcommands can be turned off with the to protect CVS's internal data structures and have no relationship to the word .
The -D option gives even more control over the output format. For compatibility with GNU coreutils, ls supports yes or force as equivalent to always, no or none as equivalent to never, and tty or if-tty as equivalent to auto.
This option turns on -a. It also negates the effect of the -r, -S and -t options. It is only available for compatibil- ity with 4.
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Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte and Petabyte in order to reduce the number of digits to four or fewer using base 2 for sizes. List files in the long format, as described in the The Long Format subsection below. See chflags 1 for a list of file flags and their meanings. Block sizes and directory totals are handled as described in The Long Format subsection below, except if the long format is not also requested the directory totals are not output when the output is in a single column, even if multi-column output is requested.
If two files have the same modification timestamp, sort their names in ascending lexicographical order. The -r option reverses both of these sort orders.
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Note that these sort orders are contradictory: This feature can cause problems listing files stored with sequential names on FAT file systems, such as from digital cameras, where it is possible to have more than one image with the same timestamp. In such a case, the photos cannot be listed in the sequence in which they were taken. This causes ls to reverse the lexicographical sort order when sorting files with the same modification timestamp.
This is the default when output is not to a terminal. See the description of the -t option for more details. Force output to be one entry per line. If no locale is set, or the locale does not have a non-monetary separator, this option has no effect.
The -1, -C, -x, and -l options all override each other; the last one specified determines the format used. The -c, -u, and -U options all override each other; the last one speci- fied determines the file time used.
The -S and -t options override each other; the last one specified deter- mines the sort order used. The -B, -b, -w, and -q options all override each other; the last one specified determines the format used for non-printable characters. The -H, -L and -P options all override each other either partially or fully ; they are applied in the order specified. By default, ls lists one entry per line to standard output; the excep- tions are to terminals or when the -C or -x options are specified.
The Long Format If the -l option is given, the following information is displayed for each file: If the modification time of the file is more than 6 months in the past or future, and the -D or -T are not specified, then the year of the last modification is displayed in place of the hour and minute fields.
If the owner or group names are not a known user or group name, or the -n option is given, the numeric ID's are displayed.
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If the file is a character special or block special file, the device num- ber for the file is displayed in the size field. The listing of a directory's contents is preceded by a labeled total num- ber of blocks used in the file system by the files which are listed as the directory's contents which may or may not include.
The default block size is bytes. Numbers of blocks in the output will have been rounded up so the numbers of bytes is at least as many as used by the corresponding file system blocks which might have a different size. The file mode printed under the -l option consists of the entry type and the permissions.
The entry type character describes the type of file, as follows: The next three fields are three characters each: Each field has three character posi- tions: If r, the file is readable; if - it is not readable. If w, the file is writable; if - it is not writable. The first of the following that applies: In older versions of Perl, if your system had neither DBM nor ndbm, calling dbmopen produced a fatal error; it now falls back to sdbm 3.
If you don't have write access to the DBM file, you can only read hash variables, not set them. If you want to test whether you can write, either use file tests or try setting a dummy hash entry inside an eval to trap the error. Note that functions such as keys and values may return huge lists when used on large DBM files. You may prefer to use the each function to iterate over large DBM files.
You can control which DBM library you use by loading that library before you call dbmopen: Many operations return undef to indicate failure, end of file, system error, uninitialized variable, and other exceptional conditions.
This function allows you to distinguish undef from other values. A simple Boolean test will not distinguish among undefzero, the empty string, and "0", which are all equally false. Note that since undef is a valid scalar, its presence doesn't necessarily indicate an exceptional condition: The return value is unaffected by any forward declarations of func.
A subroutine that is not defined may still be callable: Use of defined on aggregates hashes and arrays is deprecated. It used to report whether memory for that aggregate had ever been allocated.
This behavior may disappear in future versions of Perl. You should instead use a simple test for size: Use exists for the latter purpose. Many folks tend to overuse defined and are then surprised to discover that the number 0 and "" the zero-length string are, in fact, defined values. It didn't really fail to match anything. Rather, it matched something that happened to be zero characters long. This is all very above-board and honest. When a function returns an undefined value, it's an admission that it couldn't give you an honest answer.[Discrete Math 2] Recurrence Relations
So you should use defined only when questioning the integrity of what you're trying to do. At other times, a simple comparison to 0 or "" is what you want. See also undefexistsref. Setting a hash element to the undefined value does not remove its key, but deleting it does; see exists.
In list context, returns the value or values deleted, or the last such element in scalar context. The return list's length always matches that of the argument list: Although exists will return false for deleted entries, deleting array elements never changes indices of existing values; use shift or splice for that. However, if any deleted elements fall at the end of an array, the array's size shrinks to the position of the highest element that still tests true for existsor to 0 if none do.
In other words, an array won't have trailing nonexistent elements after a delete. Calling delete on array values is strongly discouraged. The notion of deleting or checking the existence of Perl array elements is not conceptually coherent, and can lead to surprising behavior. Deleting from a tied hash or array may not necessarily return anything; it depends on the implementation of the tied package's DELETE method, which may do whatever it pleases.
The delete local EXPR construct localizes the deletion to the current block at run time.
Deriving the formula
Until the block exits, elements locally deleted temporarily no longer exist. See "Localized deletion of elements of composite types" in perlsub. If you need to exit the process with a specific exit code, see exit.
Suppose you are running script "canasta".