Organization–public relationships - Wikipedia
With this study focused on organization and public relationships, public relations, relationship management theory has been more heavily researched. This article explores the concept of relationships in the theory and practice of public relations. Even though the public relations function builds. Relationships Between Organizations and Publics: Development of a .. "Toward a Theory of Relationship Management: Dimensions of a.
InBruning and Ledingham — in a article which received the International Communication Association's Pride Award as top PR article of the year — found through statistical analysis that OPR dimensions could be categorized into three distinct types: They further found that these OPR types could be used to predict probable public behavior in a choice situation. Also based on a comprehensive theoretical review, Hon and Grunig developed quantitative measurement scales for assessing six proposed dimensions of an organization—public relationship: The Hon and Grunig scale, developed under the auspices of the Public Relations Institute, and the Bruning and Ledingham scale, a well as others, have been used repeatedly in studies by these and other scholars.
Definitions of selected key dimensions[ edit ] Control mutuality--The degree to which parties agree on who has the rightful power to influence one another. Although some imbalance is natural, stable relationships require that organizations and publics each have some control over the other.
Trust--Operationalized by key public members in the "relationship as "doing what you say you will do" Ledingham and Bruning, A willingness to open oneself to the other party. There are three dimensions to trust: That an organization will do what it says it will do. The notion of a fiduciary relationship operates particularly when a not-for-profit organization is a party to the relationship Ledingham and Bruning.
Commitment--The extent to which each party believes and feels that the relationship is worth spending energy to maintain and promote.
Two dimensions of commitment are continuance commitment, which refers to a certain line of action, and affective commitment, which is an emotional orientation Hon and Grunig. Satisfaction--The extent to which each party feels favorably toward the other because positive expectations about the relationship are reinforced.
Public relations as relationship management | PR Place
A satisfying relationship is one in which the benefits outweigh the costs. Exchange relationships--"They provide a fair way for people to obtain many goods and services that might not be available to them in close, communal relationships in which benefits are given to support the others' welfare non-contingently"  ionships, one party gives benefits to the other only because the other has provided benefits in the past or is expected to do so in the future.
Communal relationships--In a communal relationship, both parties provide benefits to the other because they are concerned for the welfare of the other—even when they get nothing in return. For most public relations activities, developing communal relationships with key constituencies is much more important to achieve than would be developing exchange relationship.
Only some will volunteer their time and yet fewer will exercise their voting rights at annual general meetings. Despite paying for membership, this does not guarantee our loyalty. Those with a keen interest in heritage and conservation may well be members of other bodies that may feel themselves to be in competition with the National Trust for funds, for members and for attention. Maps of stakeholder relationships tend to place the organisation at the centre, rather like the medieval Christian view of the universe revolving around the earth.
Yet as my National Trust example shows, most of us do not have undivided attention or fixed loyalties. A more accurate view would present the organisation as one planet revolving around the sun, which is in turn just one star among many others in the galaxy. This is a very different model to the usual focus on organisation-public relationships.
Others extend this thinking and see public relations as community management. This sounds like a contemporary view, as community management is now assumed to mean social media management. By community they mean society, and they later argued: Some see it as part of public relations or even as the future of public relations. He identifies six paths to influence: People act in ways that are consistent with what you have said or done previously Liking: If people like you, they are more likely to do what you want Authority: People do what they see other people doing Scarcity: Grunig would surely argue that these are the only two we can claim to manage.
A former engineer, he had identified six influence flows, meaning that four were beyond the control of public relations.
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Today, influencer marketing is a growth area as public relations teams seek to supplement — or even replace - media relations with influencer relations. This specifically refers to those with niche followings on social media channels such as YouTube and Instagram.
Social capital and public relations The concept of social capital is useful for explaining relationship management. Some groups have a financial stake in the organisation: