Ra/Ra Activity Ratio in River Water in Okutama Area.,. Western District of that concentrations of Rn in underground ern part of Kanto Mountains. .. 87Sr/86Sr isotope relationship for determining in 5) Sturchio, N. C., Banner, J. L., Binz, C. M., Heraty, 17) Takaoka, Y., Geological study of Okutama-cho. The open stope mining method is the most common underground extractive .. Table Stability assessment of a 16 m span crown pillar at N B H C . Relationship between shear strength and normal stress at SztlSEiSLii*.ff *? Chapter 6,Ivestigation into the stability of crown pillars in a le ad -zi nc tnine - a. Rehabilitation Facility, Baker House (N.C. ), part 1 of 2, Clinical Cancer Research III (), part 1 of 3, . DHS chilled water loop underground piping (), FF, # CRIII Building ( Morris): Macro Site Relations Intercomponent Relationship Study A basement floor plan,
Brown made money raising cattle and surveying. He helped to establish a post office and a school. During this period, Brown operated an interstate business involving cattle and leather production along with a kinsman, Seth Thompson, from eastern Ohio. Brown fell ill, and his businesses began to suffer, leaving him in terrible debt.
In the summer ofshortly after the death of a newborn son, his wife Dianthe died. There he borrowed money to buy land in the area, building and operating a tannery along the Cuyahoga River in partnership with Zenas Kent. Following the heavy borrowing trends of Ohio, many businessmen like Brown trusted too heavily in credit and state bonds and paid dearly for it. In one episode of property loss, Brown was jailed when he attempted to retain ownership of a farm by occupying it against the claims of the new owner.
Like other determined men of his time and background, he tried many different business efforts in an attempt to get out of debt. Along with tanning hides and cattle trading, he also undertook horse and sheep breeding, the last of which was to become a notable aspect of his pre-public vocation. LovejoyBrown publicly vowed: Infour of his children died of dysentery.
As Louis DeCaro Jr shows in his biographical sketchfrom the mids Brown had built a reputation as an expert in fine sheep and wool, and entered into a partnership with Col.
Simon Perkins of Akron, Ohiowhose flocks and farms were managed by Brown and sons. Brown eventually moved into a home with his family across the street from the Perkins Stone Mansion on Perkins Hill. On the right Brown is holding the flag of Subterranean Pass Way, his militant counterpart to the Underground Railroad. There Brown found a community whose white leadership—from the community's most prominent churches, to its wealthiest businessmen, to its most popular politicians, to its local jurists, and even to the publisher of one of the nation's most influential newspapers—were deeply involved and emotionally invested in the anti-slavery movement.
While in Springfield, Brown lived in a house at 51 Franklin Street. John's Congregational Church—which went on to become one of the United States most prominent platforms for abolitionist speeches. From until he left Springfield inBrown was a parishioner at the Free Church, where he witnessed abolitionist lectures by the likes of Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth.
My utterances became more and more tinged by the color of this man's strong impressions. The business community had reacted with hesitation when Brown asked them to change their highly profitable practice of selling low-quality wool en masse at low prices.
Initially, Brown naively trusted them, but he soon realized they were determined to maintain their control of price-setting.
Also, on the outskirts of Springfield, the Connecticut River Valley 's sheep farmers were largely unorganized and hesitant to change their methods of production to meet higher standards. In the Ohio Cultivator, Brown and other wool growers complained that the Connecticut River Valley's farmers' tendencies were lowering all U.
In reaction, Brown made a last-ditch effort to overcome the wool mercantile elite by seeking an alliance with European manufacturers. Ultimately, Brown was disappointed to learn that Europe preferred to buy Western Massachusetts wools en masse at the cheap prices they had been getting.
Brown then traveled to England to seek a higher price for Springfield's wool. With this misfortune, the Perkins and Brown wool commission operation closed in Springfield in late Subsequent lawsuits tied up the partners for several more years.
In response Brown founded a militant group to prevent slaves' capture, the League of Gileadites. In the Bible, Mount Gilead was the place where only the bravest of Israelites gathered to face an invading enemy.
Brown founded the League with the words, "Nothing so charmes the American people as personal bravery. Brown gave his rocking chair to the mother of his beloved black porter, Thomas Thomas, as a gesture of affection.
In actuality, Perkins absorbed much of the financial loss, and their partnership continued for several more years, with Brown nearly breaking even by Brown's time in Springfield sowed the seeds for the future financial support he received from New England's great merchants, introduced him to nationally famous abolitionists like Douglass and Truth, and included the foundation of the League of Gileadites.
John Brown (abolitionist) - Wikipedia
In speeches, he pointed to the martyrs Elijah Lovejoy and Charles Turner Torrey as whites "ready to help blacks challenge slave-catchers. Certainly, with both successes and failures, Brown's Springfield years were a transformative period of his life that catalyzed many of his later actions. Determined to protect his family and oppose the advances of slavery supporters, Brown left for Kansas, enlisting a son-in-law and making several stops just to collect funds and weapons.
As reported by the New York Tribune, Brown stopped en route to participate in an anti-slavery convention that took place in June in Albany, New York. Despite the controversy that ensued on the convention floor regarding the support of violent efforts on behalf of the free state cause, several people gave Brown financial support.
As he went westward, Brown found more militant support in his home state of Ohio, particularly in the strongly anti-slavery Western Reserve section where he had been reared.
Pottawatomie massacre and Bleeding Kansas John Brown, Brown and the free settlers were optimistic that they could bring Kansas into the union as a slavery-free state.
Brown was particularly affected by the sacking of Lawrence in Mayin which a sheriff -led posse destroyed newspaper offices and a hotel. Only one man, a Border Ruffian, was killed. A pro-slavery writer, Benjamin Franklin Stringfellowof the Squatter Sovereign, wrote that "[pro-slavery forces] are determined to repel this Northern invasion, and make Kansas a Slave State; though our rivers should be covered with the blood of their victims, and the carcasses of the Abolitionists should be so numerous in the territory as to breed disease and sickness, we will not be deterred from our purpose".
Using swords, Brown and a band of abolitionist settlers took from their residences and killed five pro-slavery settlers north of Pottawatomie Creek in Franklin County, Kansas. Speaking of the threats that were supposedly the justification for the massacre, Free State leader Charles L. When it is known that such threats were as plenty as blue-berries in June, on both sides, all over the Territory, and were regarded as of no more importance than the idle wind, this indictment will hardly justify midnight assassination of all pro-slavery men, whether making threats or not Had all men been killed in Kansas who indulged in such threats, there would have been none left to bury the dead.
The massacre was the match in the powderkeg that precipitated the bloodiest period in "Bleeding Kansas" history, a three-month period of retaliatory raids and battles in which 29 people died. Pate and 22 of his men were taken prisoner. Brown forced Pate to sign a treaty, exchanging the freedom of Pate and his men for the promised release of Brown's two captured sons.
Brown released Pate to Colonel Edwin Sumnerbut was furious to discover that the release of his sons was delayed until September. Reid crossed into Kansas and headed towards Osawatomieintending to destroy the Free State settlements there, and then march on Topeka and Lawrence.
Brown, outnumbered more than seven to one, arranged his 38 men behind natural defenses along the road.
Firing from cover, they managed to kill at least 20 of Reid's men and wounded 40 more. Brown's small group scattered and fled across the Marais des Cygnes River.
One of Brown's men was killed during the retreat and four were captured. While Brown and his surviving men hid in the woods nearby, the Missourians plundered and burned Osawatomie.
Despite his defeat, Brown's bravery and military shrewdness in the face of overwhelming odds brought him national attention and made him a hero to many Northern abolitionists. At least 2, pro-slavery Missourians were once again invading Kansas.
On September 14, they skirmished near Lawrence. Brown prepared for battle, but serious violence was averted when the new governor of Kansas, John W. Gearyordered the warring parties to disarm and disband, and offered clemency to former fighters on both sides. Initially he returned to Springfield, where he received contributions, and also a letter of recommendation from a prominent and wealthy merchant, George Walker.
Walker was the brother-in-law of Franklin Benjamin Sanbornthe secretary for the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee, who introduced Brown to several influential abolitionists in the Boston area in January Brown often requested help from them with "no questions asked" and it remains unclear how much of Brown's scheme the Secret Six were aware of.
Slash fiction - Wikipedia
He received many pledges but little cash. Brown hired him as his men's drillmaster and to write their tactical handbook.
They agreed to meet in Tabor that summer. On August 7, he arrived in Tabor. Forbes arrived two days later. Over several weeks, the two men put together a "Well-Matured Plan" for fighting slavery in the South. The men quarreled over many of the details. In November, their troops left for Kansas. Forbes had not received his salary and was still feuding with Brown, so he returned to the East instead of venturing into Kansas. He soon threatened to expose the plot to the government.
Brown himself lived at the home of John Hunt Painterless than a mile away. As the October elections saw a free-state victory, Kansas was quiet. Brown made his men return to Iowa, where he told them tidbits of his Virginia scheme. There he discussed his plans with Douglass, and reconsidered Forbes' criticisms. In letters to them, he indicated that, along with recruits, he would go into the South equipped with weapons to do "Kansas work".
The convention assembled 34 blacks and 12 whites to adopt Brown's Provisional Constitution. According to Delany, during the convention, Brown illuminated his plans to make Kansas rather than Canada the end of the Underground Railroad. This would be the Subterranean Pass Way. Brown was no longer looking toward Kansas and was entirely focused on Virginia.
Other testimony from the Chatham meeting suggests Brown did speak of going South. Brown had long used the terminology of the Subterranean Pass Way from the late s, so it is possible that Delany conflated Brown's statements over the years.
Richard Realf was named "Secretary of State". Elder Monroe, a black minister, was to act as president until another was chosen. Chapman was the acting vice president; Delany, the corresponding secretary.
The Secret Six feared their names would be made public. Howe and Higginson wanted no delays in Brown's progress, while Parker, Stearns, Smith and Sanborn insisted on postponement. Stearns and Smith were the major sources of funds, and their words carried more weight. To throw Forbes off the trail and invalidate his assertions, Brown returned to Kansas in June, and remained in that vicinity for six months.
There he joined forces with James Montgomerywho was leading raids into Missouri. Portrait of John Brown by Ole Peter Hansen BallingOn December 20, Brown led his own raid, in which he liberated 11 slaves, took captive two white men, and looted horses and wagons.
See Battle of the Spurs. On January 20,he embarked on a lengthy journey to take the liberated slaves to Detroit and then on a ferry to Canada. Wagoner who arranged and raised the fare for the passage to Detroit  and purchase clothes and supplies for Brown.
Jones's wife, Mary, guessed that the supplies included the suit Brown was later hanged in. The suggestion was opposed by Brown, who felt humanity precluded such unnecessary bloodshed. Brown reconnoitered with the Secret Six.
On June 30,the hotel had at least 25 guests, including I. From papers found in the Kennedy Farmhouse after the raid, it is known that Brown wrote to Kagi that he would sign into a hotel as I.
Marines attacking John Brown's "Fort" As he began recruiting supporters for an attack on slaveholders, Brown was joined by Harriet Tubman"General Tubman," as he called her. Some abolitionists, including Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrisonopposed his tactics, but Brown dreamed of fighting to create a new state for freed slaves and made preparations for military action.
After he began the first battle, he believed, slaves would rise up and carry out a rebellion across the South. A few days later, under the name Isaac Smith, he rented a farmhouse in nearby Maryland. He awaited the arrival of his recruits. Most of these, as is characteristic of cultural studies, approach slash fiction from an ethnographic perspective and talk primarily about the writers of slash fiction and the communities that form around it.
Slashers have been configured as fans who resisted culture. Slash fiction was often ignored by queer theorists. Young members of the community all go through a time in which they are still exploring their identity, labels, and pronouns. By writing slash fiction, queer youth can use their favorite characters and stories in order to create scenarios that allow them to explore their feelings, thoughts, and general self.
Slash fiction, in that sense, offers queer youth the chance to explore who they are, and at a low risk. They can stay anonymous while creating a world in which they can express themselves creatively and freely  However, slash fiction has also been noted as being unrepresentative of the gay community,  being more a medium to express feminist frustration with popular and speculative fiction.
Science fiction writer Joanna Russ herself a lesbianauthor of How to Suppress Women's Writingwas one of the first major science fiction writers to take slash fiction and its cultural and literary implications seriously.
This stand of an equal relationship negates the power imbalance typically seen in regular fan fiction. Definition and ambiguity[ edit ] Of the diverse and often segregated slash fandoms, each fandom has its own rules of style and etiquette, and each comes with its own history, favorite stories, and authors.
Slash cannot be commercially distributed due to copyright, and up until the s was either undistributed or published in zines. Legal scholars promoting copyright reform sometimes use slash fiction as an example of semiotic democracy.
- John Brown (abolitionist)
Due to the lack of canonical homosexual relationships in source media at the time, some came to see slash fiction as being exclusively outside of canon. These people held that the term "slash fiction" only applies when the relationship being written about is not part of the source's canon, and that fan fiction about canonical same-sex relationships is hence not slash.
Abiding by the aforementioned definition leaves such stories without a convenient label, so this distinction has not been widely adopted. As a result, the exact definition of the term has often been hotly debated within various slash fandoms. Due to increasing popularity and prevalence of slash on the internet in recent years, some use slash as a generic term for any erotic fan fiction, whether it depicts heterosexual or homosexual relationships.
This has caused concern for other slash writers who believe that while it can be erotic, slash is not by definition so, and that defining all erotic fic as slash takes the word away from all-ages-suitable homo-romantic fan fiction. In addition, a number of journalists writing about the fan fiction phenomenon in general seem to believe that all fan fiction is slash, or at least erotic in character.
In addition to the legal issues associated with traditional fan fiction, some people believe that it tarnishes established media characters to portray them in a way which was never illustrated canonically.
As early asLucasfilm has issued legal notices to fans who wrote sexually-explicit stories. Some media creators seem down-right slash friendly.
They were all kinds of deviant. Are people thinking they never? Some people say they see similar evidence of such relationships in other shows such as Smallville Supernatural  and Due South. The newsgroup asked Haggis if he had a problem with fans seeing the characters he created Detective Ray Vecchio and Constable Benton Fraser as being in love with each other and having a closeted relationship.
Haggis replied, "Absolutely no problem at all. If ever two people loved each other, it's Ray and Fraser.