Demography is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings. As a very general population processes, while the broader field of social demography or population studies also analyses the relationships between economic. The relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and dental health knowledge and attitudes of parents with young children. If demographic and psychosocial factors relate to patients' willingness to gamble or trade on their current health state, then this may explain the lower correlation.
CEA is a balanced way to assess whether a treatment for RA is financially justifiable, taking into account health benefits and treatment costs. Such assessment is particularly important for weighing the considerable costs of recently developed biological therapies against the costs of uncontrolled RA [ 3 ].
Methods of deriving HU must use a scale that is reliable and valid [ 7 ]. HU commonly ranges from 0 to 1, where 1 usually represents perfect health and 0 is generally equated to death.
Relationship between Demographic Factors and the Performance of Teacher Education
The first two of these are direct instruments, involving gambling on a hypothetical medication that may cause perfect health or death SGor trading off part of future life for reduced time in perfect health TTO. Indirect methods of obtaining HU involve reports of current health on a standardized questionnaire such as the parsimonious EQ-5D; HU for responses have previously been estimated from HU reported in large population-based surveys using TTO [ 12 ].
It is essential that HU measures are consistent and reflect improvement or deterioration in disease, and direct instruments may not be able to provide this adequately for patients with chronic illnesses like RA. Inconsistencies between different HU measures among RA patients may make it difficult or impossible to provide comparable cost-effectiveness figures [ 9—1113 ]. There is also a debate about whether HU is best elicited directly or indirectly [ 1415 ]. Although SG and TTO are the preferred means of measuring HU from economic perspectives, indirect methods are more frequently implemented due to ease of administration and stronger correlation with other measures of health status [ 13 ].
It can also be argued that for economic decision-making in public healthcare systems, such as the British National Health Service NHSthe assessment of the utility of health states should be determined by the public the tax payers rather than individual patients, making indirect methods preferable.
Recent studies [ 1113 ] suggest that there are considerable variations in HUs across different indirect measures, but have not compared these with direct HU instruments.
It is important to understand why the same HUs are not elicited by different measures. One of the problems with direct measures of HU is the assumption that decision-makers are rational individuals with no reference to demographic or psychosocial context. Furthermore, while questionnaires differ clearly in the dimensions used to construct a health state [ 9—11 ], it is not clear what attributes patients include in the construct of their health state in SG and TTO [ 1617 ].
This study is the first to examine in detail the health state construct underlying the main HU measures among people with RA.
If demographic and psychosocial factors relate to patients' willingness to gamble or trade on their current health state, then this may explain the lower correlation than would be expected between HU and other measures of health status i. Previous research has suggested that higher socio-economic status or education and being married or living with family lead to risk aversion [ 1819 ].
Any effect of education may be due to lack of understanding of the relatively complex probabilistic procedures [ 14 ].Pearson Correlation - SPSS
These compare the sex ratios from the census data to those estimated from natural values and mortality data. Censuses do more than just count people. They may also collect data on migration or place of birth or of previous residencelanguage, religion, nationality or ethnicity or raceand citizenship. In countries in which the vital registration system may be incomplete, the censuses are also used as a direct source of information about fertility and mortality; for example the censuses of the People's Republic of China gather information on births and deaths that occurred in the 18 months immediately preceding the census.
Map of countries by population Rate of human population growth showing projections for later this century Indirect methods[ edit ] Indirect methods of collecting data are required in countries and periods where full data are not available, such as is the case in much of the developing world, and most of historical demography.
One of these techniques in contemporary demography is the sister method, where survey researchers ask women how many of their sisters have died or had children and at what age.
Demography - Wikipedia
With these surveys, researchers can then indirectly estimate birth or death rates for the entire population. Other indirect methods in contemporary demography include asking people about siblings, parents, and children.
Other indirect methods are necessary in historical demography. There are a variety of demographic methods for modelling population processes. They include models of mortality including the life tableGompertz modelshazards modelsCox proportional hazards modelsmultiple decrement life tablesBrass relational logitsfertility Hernes modelCoale -Trussell models, parity progression ratiosmarriage Singulate Mean at Marriage, Page modeldisability Sullivan's methodmultistate life tablespopulation projections Lee-Carter modelthe Leslie Matrixand population momentum Keyfitz.
The United Kingdom has a series of four national birth cohort studies, the first three spaced apart by 12 years: These have followed the lives of samples of people typically beginning with around 17, in each study for many years, and are still continuing. As the samples have been drawn in a nationally representative way, inferences can be drawn from these studies about the differences between four distinct generations of British people in terms of their health, education, attitudes, childbearing and employment patterns.
The general fertility ratethe annual number of live births per 1, women of childbearing age often taken to be from 15 to 49 years old, but sometimes from 15 to The age-specific fertility rates, the annual number of live births per 1, women in particular age groups usually ageetc. The crude death ratethe annual number of deaths per 1, people. The infant mortality ratethe annual number of deaths of children less than 1 year old per 1, live births.