Bidirectional definition | Psychology Glossary | avesisland.info
Psychology definition for Bidirectional in normal everyday language, edited by psychologists, professors and leading students. Help us get better. According to socialization theories, the association between found to predict higher levels of perceived parental psychological control (Murray et al. . Child measures were collected at school by trained research assistants. Evidence supports the notion that bidirectional relationships exist between Parenting and Family Support Centre, School of Psychology, The.
Because the accelerometer was waterproof, participants could wear the sensor all day, even when getting wet. In addition to the accelerometer, each participant also received an Android smartphone Google Nexus 4. A mobile application APPwhich was developed for the current study, was downloaded on each phone and was designed to deliver questionnaires that prompted participants with an alarm to report on affective and physical feeling states at four time points each day each observation is called a wave.
Notably, all affective and physical feeling states questions were given at each of the four time points. The study protocol required that survey times be at least 2 hr apart, and research staff encouraged participants to pick two survey times in the morning e.
Research staff informed adolescents the surveys would be administered at the same time on weekdays and weekends and that they were allowed to choose survey times during school hours if they had free periods during which the use of a mobile device was appropriate. The chosen prompt times were fixed for each participant for each day throughout the duration of the study. For example, it was anticipated that scheduling the surveys around after-school activities or sports practices increased the chances that when prompted, adolescents would complete the surveys with their full attention.
Additionally, the decision to use four survey observations was made to obtain ecological momentary assessment EMA data that captured daily fluctuations of the variables of interest without being overly burdensome to participants.
The measures included in this study were a part of a larger EMA project that evaluated the dynamic associations among physiological variables, psychological variables, and health behaviors in adolescents Cushing, At the end of the day study period, participants attended another in-person visit in which they returned the equipment and completed post-assessment measures.
The study procedures described above were approved by the local institutional review board prior to data collection. This well-validated device records three planes of movement through a triaxial accelerometer. For the current study, accelerometers were initialized to sample movement at a rate of 30 Hz, and the participants were instructed to wear the ActiGraph on their nondominant wrist, as described in the current National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES protocol Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, The Actilife software v.
Raw data were first binned into s epochs. Sleep periods were considered non-wear time in the current processing procedures to ensure that only waking wear time was considered when determining activity estimates. Within waking wear time, participants were required to provide 10 consecutive hours of wear for data to be considered valid in a given day.
The Chandler algorithm was chosen for cut points in the current study, as it was established using a sample of youth under 18 years of age wearing wrist-worn accelerometers Chandler et al.
As a result, the cut points in the current data processing procedures were as follows: Accelerometer data were linked with the EMA questionnaire responses using electronic time stamps.
The MVPA and sedentary behavior variables were calculated by summing the total number of minutes for each variable respectively, occurring within the 30 min prior and immediately following each EMA questionnaire.
Descriptive Statistics for Study Variables Variable. Current Study The aim of this study was to examine whether the association between changes in parenting and changes in aggressive child behavior over time differed in three conditions: The inclusion of three conditions enabled us to examine whether bidirectional associations differ between an intervention context and a general developmental context. We included both negative and positive parenting constructs.
Because the literature regarding bidirectional effects is inconsistent, we cannot propose a strong hypothesis for the control condition, which reflects normative development of children with elevated levels of aggression.
Bidirectional relationships between psychological health and dermatological conditions in children
In the child intervention condition, we expected a decrease in aggression. In turn, parents may find it easier to show more positive and less negative parenting behavior.
Therefore, we expected that in the child intervention condition, child-driven effects might be stronger than parent-driven effects. Therefore, in this condition we expected to find parent-driven effects in addition to child-driven effects.
The association between changes in parenting and changes in aggression was examined with two different approaches. We first examined differences between the three conditions in correlated change with the multigroup bivariate Latent Growth Modeling LGM method.
Testing correlated change is an important extension on earlier studies that examined bidirectional relations. Whereas these earlier studies mainly investigated time-specific associations between variables e. This enabled us to examine whether changes in parenting and changes in aggression influence each other over time. However, the direction of causality and timing of effects cannot be determined with the correlated change approach.
Therefore, multi-group bivariate LGM was supplemented with another time-based approach: The use of cross-lagged models enabled us to test the direction and timing of effects. These models were also examined with multigroup analyses, to test whether the effects differed between the three conditions.
We measured both mother- and teacher reported aggression because earlier studies reported differences in the strength of effects between informants of child behavior. Specifically, Pardini et al.
In the current study, child reports of parenting were used to reduce shared method bias. The intervention in this study is a social-cognitive intervention for children at elementary schools with elevated levels of aggression.
For instance, individuals with bipolar spectrum disorders experienced greater disruption of their social rhythm than controls following both positive and negative life events e. Further, less social rhythm regularity was found to predict more rapid reoccurrence of affective episodes i.
And, as proposed in the Social Zeitgeber Theory Ehlers et al. On the other hand, promoting life rhythm in therapy was also proven effective in treating bipolar disorder, marked by fast stabilization, longer episode-free periods, and decreased disorder recurrence Frank et al.
Beyond affective disorders, there are indications of a relationship between social rhythm irregularity and posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD. As reviewed above, a solid body of research has shed light on the understanding of the bidirectional relationship between social rhythm and mental illness, especially affective diseases.
In the recent decades, the positive aspects of mental health are taking a more prominent role in public mental health care and disorder-related research and practice. Accumulating studies have shown that the negative and positive aspects of mental health are only moderately related to each other, and that the association between the two is bidirectional, supported by the two-dimensional model of mental health Westerhof and Keyes, ; Kendler et al. Furthermore, positive mental health emerged as a predictor of the remitting course of mental disorders Lukat et al.
To our knowledge, only a few studies have investigated the relationship between social rhythm and positive mental health.
Unidirectional and bidirectional relationships
For instance, a cross-sectional study with a representative German sample of over 7, people revealed that social rhythm irregularity was associated with less life satisfaction and greater depression, anxiety, and stress Velten et al. A recent large-scale research study with samples from Russia, Germany, and the United States demonstrated that social rhythm regularity was an important cross-cultural factor in predicting higher positive mental and physical health, as well as less health problems Margraf et al.
Similarly, a relatively regular working schedule is positively linked to psycho-social well-being, such as family and social commitments. Moreover, individuals who engaged in regular physical activity displayed not only decreased mood symptoms but also enhanced experience of well-being Penedo and Dahn, Sleep hygiene, which involved regular sleep schedules, was found to partially or indirectly predict depression and poor well-being in college students Peach et al.
Most previous studies focusing on social rhythm and positive mental health adopted a cross-sectional design Velten et al. Logically, the next step should be to investigate the longitudinal and potential causal relationship between the two important constructs Kraemer et al. The few longitudinal studies so far mainly focused on either the predictor role social rhythm plays on negative mental health Frank et al.
Meanwhile, it remains unknown whether social rhythm regularity and positive mental health would also benefit from each other over time. Therefore, the present study aimed to gain insight into the reciprocal relationship of social rhythm regularity predicting higher levels of positive mental health, and vice versa. The BSRS is a new tool with multiple language versions that quickly assesses rhythmicity in eating, sleeping, and socializing patterns. The PMHS was applied, as a valid short unidimensional measure of general emotional well-being Lukat et al.
A large-scale population diary study revealed that the highest rhythmicity was found within older people and those who cohabite with a partner and children, while younger single populations were relatively less rhythmic van Tienoven et al. Given that the academic pressures and life changes of college life may also lead to greater risk of irregularity in social rhythm as well as to changes in emotional well-being, a college student sample was selected for the current study.
Furthermore, the survey continued for 3 years in order to track changes in both social rhythm and positive mental health over time.
Based on earlier empirical evidence that social rhythm and positive mental health were associated with each other cross-sectionally Margraf et al. All participants were students at Shanghai Normal University, China. This university offers 17 major programs, the current project randomly selected students from five of the programs, including majors from humanities, sciences, etc.
The project lasted for three academic years from to with one distribution of questionnaires each year altogether three waves of surveys, referred as T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Each survey was conducted in May, which was around the middle of the second semester of the academic year, in order to avoid potential influences of the beginning or end of a new academic year or new semester on the psychological or social well-being of participants.
The sample size for T1 was 2,; 2, for T2, and 2, for T3. Finally, answers from 2, participants Missing values were replaced by mean values. Among them, 1, were females, and were males. At baseline, 1, students were in their freshman year, were sophomore year students, and 3 were in their junior year of college. The average age at T1 of the longitudinal sample was