Hollywood blacklist - Wikipedia
The Hollywood blacklist—as the broader entertainment industry blacklist is generally A group of studio executives, acting under the aegis of the Association of Motion The blacklist lasted until , when Dalton Trumbo, a Communist Party . In light of the "Hollywood Ten"'s defiance of HUAC – in addition to refusing to. The postwar blacklist brought with it no artistic boon. Though “Johnny Guitar” is a Western with little overt connection to historical politics, “Red Hollywood” mainly features clips of films made by Communist writers, directors, and actors in He refused to testify before HUAC, in , and was blacklisted. Most famously, that count came to 10 - the Hollywood Ten, a group of writers anti-communism, but McCarthy was never a member of the HUAC and in cultural influences of Europe, a marriage that may well have helped.
In addition, those who refused to cooperate were often blacklisted by their employers. They lost their jobs and were effectively prevented from working in their chosen industry. These critics argued that most people who were called before the committee had broken no laws, but instead were targeted for their political beliefs or for exercising their right to free speech.
Supporters of the committee, on the other hand, believed that its efforts were justified given the grave threat to U. Targeting Hollywood and Alger Hiss The HUAC investigations delved into many areas of American life, but they paid special attention to the motion picture industry, which was believed to harbor a large number of Communists.
Not wishing to get on the wrong side of Congress or the movie-going public, most film industry executives did not speak out against the investigations. In addition, many of the major studios imposed a strict blacklist policy against actors, directors, writers and other personnel implicated in Communist activity. The film industry investigations reached their peak with the events surrounding the Hollywood Tena group of writers and directors who were called to testify in October As historian Gerald Horne describes, many Hollywood screenwriters had joined or associated with the local Communist Party chapter because it "offered a collective to a profession that was enmeshed in tremendous isolation at the typewriter.
Although their criticism could be plentiful, stinging, and sometimes politically dogmatic, the author was entirely free to accept it or reject it as he or she pleased without incurring the slightest "consequence" or sanction.
One witness remembered Stander, while performing in a film, whistling the left-wing " Internationale " as his character waited for an elevator. The author Kenneth Billingsley, writing in Reason magazine, said that Trumbo wrote in The Daily Worker about films which he said communist influence in Hollywood had prevented from being made: The Film Colony's Long Romance with the Left, said that Trumbo bragged about how he and other party members stopped anti-communist films from being produced.
Writer Dalton Trumbofor instance, one of the Hollywood Ten and still very much on the blacklist, had received screen credit in for writing, years earlier, the story on which the screenplay of Columbia Pictures ' Emergency Wedding was based. There would be no more of that until the s. The name of Albert Maltzwho had written the original screenplay for The Robe in the mids, was nowhere to be seen when the movie was released in The picture itself was based on the life of Toulouse-Lautrec and was totally apolitical.
Nine members of the Legion had picketed it anyway, giving rise to the controversy. By this time, people were not taking any chances. Ferrer immediately wired the Legion's national commander that he would be glad to join the veterans in their "fight against communism". In"[s]creenwriter Louis Pollock, a man without any known political views or associations, suddenly had his career yanked out from under him because the American Legion confused him with Louis Pollack, a California clothier, who had refused to co-operate with HUAC.
Variety described it as "the first industry admission of what has for some time been an open secret — that the threat of being labeled a political non-conformist, or worse, has been used against show business personalities, and that a screening system is at work determining these [actors'] availabilities for roles".
Bette Davis "plays a small-town librarian who refuses, on principle, to remove a book called 'The Communist Dream' from the shelves when the local council deems it subversive".
Perspectives on the Hollywood Blacklist | Guided History
Edgar Hoover 's FBI. Adversaries of HUAC such as lawyer Bartley Crumwho defended some of the Hollywood Ten in front of the committee inwere labeled as Communist sympathizers or subversives and targeted for investigation themselves. Throughout the s, the FBI tapped Crum's phones, opened his mail, and placed him under continuous surveillance. As a result, he lost most of his clients and, unable to cope with the stress of ceaseless harassment, committed suicide in Fund-raising for once-popular humanitarian efforts became difficult, and despite the sympathies of many in the industry there was little open support in Hollywood for causes such as the Civil Rights Movement and opposition to nuclear weapons testing.
As described by film historian James Chapman, " Carl Foremanwho had refused to testify before the committee, wrote the western High Noonin which a town marshal played, ironically, by friendly witness Gary Cooper finds himself deserted by the good citizens of Hadleyville read: Hollywood when a gang of outlaws who had terrorized the town several years earlier read: Even more famously, Kazan and Schulberg collaborated on a movie widely seen as justifying their decision to name names.
On the Waterfront became one of the most honored films in Hollywood history, winning eight Academy Awardsincluding Oscars for Best Film, Kazan's direction, and Schulberg's screenplay.
The film featured Lee J. Cobbone of the best known actors to name names. Time Out Film Guide argues that the film is "undermined" by its "embarrassing special pleading on behalf of informers". The film, concerning a strike by Mexican-American mine workers, was denounced as Communist propaganda when it was completed in Distributors boycotted it, newspapers and radio stations rejected advertisements for it, and the projectionists' union refused to run it.
Nationwide inonly around a dozen theaters exhibited it.
The Hollywood Blacklist
Host of an afternoon comedy radio show, Faulk was a leftist active in his union, the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists. He was scrutinized by AWARE, one of the private firms that examined individuals for signs of Communist sympathies and "disloyalty". Marked by the group as unfit, he was fired by CBS Radio.
The initial cracks in the entertainment industry blacklist were evident on television, specifically at CBS. Inblacklisted actor Norman Lloyd was hired by Alfred Hitchcock as an associate producer for his anthology series Alfred Hitchcock Presentsthen entering its third season on the network.
On January 20,director Otto Preminger publicly announced that Dalton Trumbo, one of the best known members of the Hollywood Ten, was the screenwriter of his forthcoming film Exodus.
Six-and-a-half months later, with Exodus still to debut, the New York Times announced that Universal Pictures would give Trumbo screen credit for his role as writer on Spartacusa decision star Kirk Douglas is now recognized as largely responsible for. Sincehe had written or co-written approximately seventeen motion pictures without credit. Exodus followed in December, also bearing Trumbo's name. The blacklist was now clearly coming to an end, but its effects continue to reverberate even until the present.
With this court decision, the private blacklisters and those who used them were put on notice that they were legally liable for the professional and financial damage they caused.
This helped to bring an end to publications such as Counterattack. Others, like actor Lee J. Cobb and director Michael Gordonwho gave friendly testimony to HUAC after suffering on the blacklist for a time, "concede[d] with remorse that their plan was to name their way back to work".
Inactor Sterling Hayden declared, I was a rat, a stoolie, and the names I named of those close friends were blacklisted and deprived of their livelihood.
Marshal 's office after being cited for contempt of Congress. Front row from left: KennyAlbert MaltzLester Cole. The following ten individuals were cited for contempt of Congress and blacklisted after refusing to answer questions about their alleged involvement with the Communist Party: Samuel Ornitz Son of a prosperous dry-goods merchant, Ornitz was on the streets of New York giving socialist speeches at the age of He became a social worker and started to write for the left-wing theatre, publishing a successful novel about Jewish immigrant life in titled Haunch, Paunch and Jowl.
Hollywood owns up
Moving to Hollywood inOrnitz worked for several studios, writing 25 scripts including Little Orphan Annie His Hollywood career, however, was over.
Robert Adrian Scott Starting his professional life on magazines, Scott switched to Hollywood and wrote scripts in the early Forties. He became best known as a producer of polished film noir, working with Edward Dmytryk on Murder, My Sweet and Crossfire. He joined the Communist Party in and was hauled in by HUAC; while awaiting sentence he left for London to seek work, but returned to the US when the courts would not overturn the verdict.
He died of lung cancer aged Dalton Trumbo The most successful at making the blacklist into a standing industry joke, Trumbo started his screenwriting career in After his release Trumbo sold his ranch and moved to Mexico, continuing to produce many scripts under pseudonyms as well as some sharp polemical articles.
It was fitting that he broke the blacklist with on-screen credits for Spartacus and Exodus in