Why education about gender and sexuality does belong in the classroom
There is currently no consistent standard of sex, sexuality, gender and respectful relationships education across Australian schools. Each state. In his classic theory of the American family, personal fulfillment in relationships . To Sen, the gender aspect of education is a direct link between illiteracy and inequalities in tertiary education in general, as well as in relation to areas of study .
- Education and gender equality
- Gender Influence on Educational Process
Quality schooling can offer young people opportunities to learn about and practice leadership roles through school clubs and committees. Female role models can attract girls to school and improve their learning outcomes. Men are more likely to ascend to leadership positions in schools, even where the majority of teachers are women. Transformation of the education sector — including the structures and composition of school management, governance, and education ministries — is needed to create a gender equitable environment.
Female share of school management personnel, by level of education, selected countries, Source: Equally, having more male principals or administrators indicates that men are more likely to become managers than women.
Education and gender equality
Higher education is important but does not guarantee equality in the public sphere. Further education and professional training are typically required for women to be considered credible, influential, high-level leaders and decision-makers. With only the second ever female Prime Minister newly in post in the UK, and a hotly contested US election with Hilary Clinton in the running, perhaps the situation for these countries is changing.
This is connected to a focus in the Millennium Development Goals on averages without an accompanying consideration of trends beneath the averages. Many contributions in the education consultation, as well as in the other thematic consultations, highlighted the lack of attention to marginalized and vulnerable groups.
Equal access to good quality education requires addressing wide-ranging and persistent inequalities in society and should include a stronger focus on how different forms of inequality intersect to produce unequal outcomes for marginalized and vulnerable groups. Post consultations suggest that overcoming inequality requires a goal that makes national governments accountable for providing minimum standards and implementing country specific plans for basic services, including education.How to avoid gender stereotypes: Eleanor Tabi Haller-Jordan at TEDxZurich
Equity in education also implies various proactive and targeted measures to offer progressive support to disadvantaged groups. The report states that in cultures in which a higher value is placed on education of male children, girls risk being taken out of school and are then likely to enter the workforce at an early age. The ILO report noted global estimates where more than million girls were involved in child labour, and many were exposed to some of its worst forms.
Much of the research around women and education highlights the importance of investing in the education of girls as an effective way of tackling the gamut of poverty. Anne Oakley in particular, is known for coining the term gender socializationwhich indicates that gender is socially constructed. According to Oakley, parents are engaged in gender socialization but society holds the largest influence in constructing gender. She identified three social mechanisms of gender socialization: Oakley noted that gender is not a fixed concept but is determined by culture through the use of verbal and nonverbal signifiers and the creation of social norms and stereotypes, which identify proper and acceptable behavior.
The signifiers are then perpetuated on a macro level, reinforced by the use of the media, as well as at the micro level, through individual relationships. Gender socialization begins as early as when a woman becomes pregnant and people start making judgments about the value of males over females.
These stereotypes are perpetuated by family members, teachers and others by having different expectations for males and females. This is closely connected, in many relatively socially conservative contexts, with the need to ensure the prerequisite of marriage.
Sex differences in education - Wikipedia
Most related studies maintain that women with formal education are much more likely to use reliable family planning methods, delay marriage and childbearing, and have fewer and healthier babies than women with no formal education.
The World Bank estimates that one year of female schooling reduces fertility by 10 per cent, particularly where secondary schooling is undertaken. In fact, because women with some formal education are more likely to seek medical care and be better informed about health care practices for themselves and their children, their offspring have higher survival rates and are better nourished.
Not only that, but as indicated earlier, these women are less likely to undergo early pregnancy. The World Bank estimates that an additional year of schooling for 1, women helps prevent two maternal deaths. An educated mother is more likely, it is maintained, to attempt to ensure educational opportunities for her children.
The rhetorical question that needs to be raised here is whether the consistent elements of gender socialization in the region, and the confusing messages for both sexes, can only lead to entrenching processes of gender inequality. At the very least, it is safe to argue that gender socialization, combined with the continuing discrepancies in education opportunities and outcomes not only provide a negative feedback loop, but effectively contribute to entrenching patriarchal norms.
Political events and the endorsement of political leadership are often catalytic, if not necessary determinants, of policy change. In fact, most education reform programmes are often linked to political dynamics. Some curriculum have even been rewritten to highlight the roles played by white males. An example of this would be the way wars are talked about.
Education as the Pathway towards Gender Equality
Curriculum's on the Civil War, for instance, tend to emphasize the key players as Ulysses S. Lee, and Abraham Lincoln. Whereas woman or men of color such as Harriet Tubman as a spy for the Union, Harriet Beecher Stowe or Frederick Douglass, are downplayed from their part in the war.
Shop classes and advanced sciences are seen as more masculine, whereas home economics, art, or humanities are seen as more feminine. The problem comes when students receive different treatment and education because of his or her gender or race. Girls may be encouraged to learn skills valued in female-dominated fields, while boys might learn leadership skills for male-dominated occupations.
For example, as they move into the secondary and post-secondary phases of their education, boys tend to gravitate more toward STEM courses than their female classmates. In a study by Rebecca Carter, of which private and public school 8th graders were looked at using the National Education Longitudinal Study NELSa study which provides many details regarding parental involvement in their child's educational attainment.
However, it was noted that females were more likely than males to have less time spent socializing with friends based on parental involvement, reflecting the concept that parents put forth greater efforts to protect their daughters. Data has also shown that parental attendance at school events is greater for daughters than for sons, and when controlling for academic factors its been found that over half of the gender differences that had been found were explained by academic factors, meaning that parental involvement in these events were influenced by daughter's academic performance.
Parents may spend differently based on gender of their children which is an unequal treatment.
Shaleen Khanal studied the expenditure people spent on girls and boys in Nepal. Also, parents in Nepal are more willing to spend more money in order to let boys to go to private school for the better education.
This phenomenon is more pronounced in Nepal' s rural area, but it happened in urban areas as well.
Sex differences in education
Sex discrimination in high school and college course-taking also results in women not being prepared or qualified to pursue more prestigious, high paying occupations. Sex discrimination in education also results in women being more passive, quiet, and less assertive, due to the effects of the hidden curriculum. Because gender is something we learn, day-to-day interactions shape our understandings of how to do gender.
Their communicative interactions may also single out other students. For example, a teacher may call on one or two students more than the others. This causes those who are called on less to be less confidant. A gendered example would be a teacher expecting a girl to be good at coloring or a boy to be good at building. These types of interactions restrict a student to the particular role assigned to them. While a teacher may not purposely try to communicate these differences, they may tend to make comments based on gender physical ability.
A female, on the other hand, might be told she is too masculine looking to where she becomes more reserved and less motivated. Females may not find interest in science, technology, engineering, or math STEMbecause they have not been exposed to those types of classes.
This is because interactions within the school and society are pushing them towards easier, more feminine classes, such as home economics or art. They also might not see many other women going into the STEM field. This then lowers the number of women in STEM, further producing and continuing this cycle. Because of interactions from teachers, such as saying boys do not usually cook, males may then be less likely to follow careers such as a chef, an artist, or a writer.
Most notable is the soaring rates of female participants, which has surpassed the enrollment and participation rates of their male counterparts. The literacy gap in fourth grade is equivalent to males being developmentally two years behind the average girl in reading and writing. At the middle school level, statistics from the Educational Testing Service show that the gap between eight-grade males and females is more than six times greater than the differences in mathematical reasoning, mathematical reasoning favoring males.
These findings have spanned across the globe as the International Association for Evaluation of Educational Achievement IEA found gender to be the most powerful predictor of performance in a study of 14 countries.