Movement of Air
The relationship between the two is that air temperature changes the air pressure . For example, as the air warms up the molecules in the air become more active. Differences in pressure result in air moving from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. Moving air is wind. The greater the change in pressure, the. We all are habituated with the basic characteristics of air. On the other hand, temperature also affects the air pressure to a great amount. . So, different air pressure zones in an area create a stream of wind. understanding of weather conditions and their relation with air pressure will come in easy reach.
Since air pressure pushes in all directions, the air pressure pushing up from under your desk balances out the air pushing down on it, so the desk doesn't collapse under the weight. Just like an acrobat with two people stacked on his shoulders would want to move to where there wasn't so much pressure on him, air moves from areas where the pressure is higher to where it is lower.
Pressure and Temperature
What causes Air Pressure? Air pressure depends on the density of the air, or how close together its molecules are. You know that a hard rubber ball is more dense than a Styrofoam ball and that ice cream is more dense than whipped cream.
Air lower in the atmosphere is more dense than air above, so air pressure down low is greater than air pressure higher up. Remember those acrobats; there's a lot more pressure on the one on bottom than on the one on top.
Temperature also makes changes in air pressure.
Pressure and Temperature - Geography for Kids
In cold air, the molecules are more closely packed together than in warm air, so cold air is more dense than warm air. Rising and Sinking Air Since warm air is less dense and creates less air pressure, it will rise; cold air is denser and creates greater air pressure, and so it will sink. When warm air rises, cooler air will often move in to replace it, so wind often moves from areas where it's colder to areas where it's warmer. The greater the difference between the high and low pressure or the shorter the distance between the high and low pressure areas, the faster the wind will blow.
Wind also blows faster if there's nothing in its way, so winds are usually stronger over oceans or flat ground.
Meteorologists can forecast the speed and direction of wind by measuring air pressure with a barometer. Wind Direction Although wind blows from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure, it doesn't blow in a straight line.
What is the relationship between temperature, air pressure, wind and moisture?
April 04, ; Accepted: May 27, ; Published: Wind can be defined simply as air in motion, Pidwirny and Slanina, and according to Newton's second law Norbury and Roulstoneassuming the mass of the wind is unchanged constant densitythe pressure gradient acceleration the acceleration of the wind is directly proportional to the difference in pressure.
This question was addressed using standard Regression Analysis by Wooten and Tsokos ab in "A proposed new scale to identify the category of a Hurricane's status. To further test this relationship, the relations were re-analyzed using this new statistical method and then extended this to include non-response analysis together with interaction between wind speed and pressure.
However, wind formation is a result of temperature difference; pressure and wind speed are co-dependent on temperature. Therefore, to test for the affects of temperatures the analysis was further extended and the issue of volume has also been addressed Powell and Reinhold, It has been shown that the relationship between wind speed and pressure are co-dependent with temperature.
It was first considered the relationship between wind speed and pressure within a storm and then considered more complex relationships between wind speedpressure and temperature near the surface of the water. Having identified statistically the relationship in the subject data, it allows meteorologist to determine estimates of each variable as a function of the other variables, depending on the time of year and on the non-functional relationship obtained.
Understanding the non-functional relationship between temperature, pressure and wind speed s is useful in understanding the dynamics that exist within a tropical storm.
Therefore we have 2 The data for the first part of the study are taken from website http: With readings every three hours, we have a sample of size With nearly days of hourly readings, we have a sample of size There variables included in this second data set include pressure and wind speed in addition to temperatures atmospheric, water and dew point from which we will use Wooten's augmented matrix to determine the relationship that exist among the variables including interaction between the wind speed and pressure.
Then using standard statistical methods for multiple regression, we have the following data matrices: The parameter estimates are given in Table 1 including the analysis of variance and regression statistics.
This model indicates that when there is no wind present, the atmospheric pressure is approximately With a standard error of 9. As proof on concept, we will estimate this same relationship using Wooten's augmented matrix and compare the results.
The alternative model is: Modeling done using standard multiple-regression can also be done using augmented matrices. This gives a scaled model in terms of pressure as a function of wind speed of as shown in Fig. The apparent differences are due to the fact that the data used to calibrate both models where recorded under hurricane conditions and therefore standard atmospheric pressure is extrapolated information.
First we will test the relationship between wind speed and pressure assuming interaction and then with the full second order model. Consider the augmented model including interaction without second order terms: Using the developed non-response analysis, we have to be: This gives a scaled model in terms of the smallest coefficient of Where the parameter estimates are given in Table 3. The parameter estimates are given in Table 3 ; with Solving for pressure we have: As indicated in Fig. However, there is a smaller standard error, this is an indication of higher order terms in at least one of the principle factors to explain the curvature seen in the residuals Fig.
Full second order model: Consider the augmented model: Scatter plot of pressure versus wind speed including developed model including interaction Using this non-response analysis, we have to be: Residual plot of a pressure and b wind speed Solving for pressure we have: The apparent reason for the two solutions is that pressures relationship to wind speed is indirectly related by temperature and volume and therefore, the pressure would be different before, during and after a storm.
Scatter plot of pressure versus wind speed including developed model including higher order terms and interaction This is seen in the estimates when we let: This is an indication that there are lurking variables, either volume not measured or temperatures not provided in this data set are related to pressure and wind speed.
This breakdown is consistent with the Wooten and Tsokos b scale, that around 80 knots there is a shift in pressure differentials and the start of hurricane category 2 in this newly defined scale. Scatter plot of pressure versus wind speed a before the storm and b after the storm Table 4: