investigated the relationship between a range of study strategies and outcomes measures. various study skills and learning outcomes. The typical study of this. Abstract: There have been many studies investigating the relationship between various study skills and learning outcomes. The results of such studies are used. Our study provides the view of the various skills of studying adopted by the dental A significant association (P relationship between study skills and learning outcomes: A meta- analysis.
The 1-hour workshop did not allow enough time to go into detail or cover all effective strategies. We used the workshop to go over strategies we believed would offer the greatest impact and provided a handout that gave more detail and additional references to the students after the workshop.
We also requested feedback from students as to how the workshop could be improved or what additional aspects could be addressed for the next student cohort. Using this table, we asked students to tell us their interest in implementing each technique e.
This information was invaluable to our Director of Academic Success, who delivers additional focused sessions on topics such as time management and study skills. It allowed her to tailor the sessions to the needs and interests of the current student cohort.
It also provided us with feedback as to which techniques might need more attention during the workshop.
Ultimately, the goal was to educate our new students on study techniques that offer the greatest payoff in retention.
We have seen students who succeeded in their undergraduate studies utilizing cramming and highlighting and becoming woefully unprepared for the difficulties of an integrated curriculum where the binge and purge is no longer a viable strategy.
This workshop would be relevant to and easily implemented within many educational frameworks, including traditional medical school curricula, integrated curricula, board exam preparation, residency transition, and nonmedical undergraduate or graduate degree programs. Methods For the last 3 years, we have delivered the workshop to our first-year medical students during the first week of a semester-long integrated basic science course.
The workshop combines an engaging PowerPoint presentation Appendix A, notes for facilitator provided in Appendix B and interactive study skills activities Appendix C. No specific skills are required for implementing this workshop, although familiarity with the references cited in the handout Appendix D is encouraged. We feel that the placement of the study skills session is ideal within our curriculum but also acknowledge that multiple time frames of implementation could be beneficial to undergraduate, graduate, and continuing learners.
We invited all first-year students to attend the initial workshop, which was given during 1 hour of a lunch period. At the beginning of the hour, we displayed a slide containing eight 3- and 4-digit alphanumeric combinations Activity 2: We have altered the alphanumeric combinations accordingly with each presentation of the workshop as detailed on the slide notes. At the end of the 2 minutes, we began the session in earnest.
We completed Activity 1 the penny exercise as it appears in the presentation. Please see slide notes for all activity instructions. Approximately halfway through the session, we returned to Activity 2 as prompted in the slides and used the activity packet Appendix C. During the session, we discussed the highlights of study techniques to use before, during, and after a lecture. We referred throughout to our study skills handout Appendix Dwhich contains additional details and examples to support the techniques discussed during the session.
At the end of the session, we provided the students with an anonymous feedback questionnaire. This enabled the students to immediately reflect on their individual lessons learned and intended techniques to try, and provided us as facilitators with unanswered questions and concerns that could be addressed in future review sessions.
Open-ended questions from each feedback opportunity were qualitatively analyzed by two separate researchers for consistent themes.
Approximately 1 month after the initial workshop, a minute follow-up workshop was offered during a lunch-hour review session. All first-year students were again invited to attend. We passed out an activity packet that was similar to the one used during the first workshop, again with the cover sheet instructing them not to open until asked. Specifically, we expected that the ways in which middle-school students approach the learning process could pass through the way they conceptualize learning and their perceptions of themselves as learners.
Methods Participants One hundred and thirty-six middle-school students were recruited from medium-sized urban middle schools 67 males, M-age Forty-three students were in the 6th grade, 41 in the 7th grade, and 52 in the 8th grade. All students who participated in the study passed the final exam and there had been no indications of delay or learning disorders in the students who participated.
Students were from a similar socio-economic status SES —medium-low. All schools in our sample were part of the public system. Parents and school authorities, as well as the students themselves, consented to participate in the study.
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All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Procedures Early in the semester, at the end of September, information and the plan of the study were shared with the classes. The questionnaires were handed out collectively during regular school hours. During this time, both the researcher and the teacher were available to answer any questions. In a second step, going from the end of June to the end of July, students' academic outcomes were collected.
It consists of 21 subjects, grouped into four categories as follows: The QMS has strong internal reliability.
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Three different sections of the LCQ measured the following constructs in relation to the experience of learning: This section is inspired by the models described by Brunerand primarily focused on the active or passive approach of learners and their relations with knowledge. The factorial structure of LCQ is reported in Vezzani et al. Assessment of academic outcomes Thanks to teacher report data, academic performance was assessed as the average percentage mark on different subjects.
In order to have a more reliable measure of academic outcomes, we decided to collect results in different subjects, such as language and literature, mathematics, and foreign languages. As a general note, final grades are the result of tests, both oral and written, held during the school year and represent a necessary condition for admission to the following year. Context of research In our context of research, the Ministry of Education establishes the aims of the educational process, the subjects, the number of teaching hours, the general criteria for student assessment, etc.
The program follows a specific curriculum, as indicated in National Guidelines for the Curricula, and it embraces various disciplines ranging from language and literature, foreign language, an additional foreign language, history, geography, mathematics, science, technology, music, art, and sports science.
Periodic and annual assessments focus on student learning processes, including their behavior as well as learning outcomes. Furthermore, the Educational Offer Plan POF in Italian of each school defines the method and criteria for assuring that the evaluation is uniform and transparent.
Data analysis In the first step, all descriptive statistics minimum and maximum, mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis coefficients for QMS, LCQ dimensions, and academic outcomes language and literature, foreign language, and mathematics were carried out, with the normality of distribution assured. In the second step, in line with the first aim of the present study, we calculated the bivariate and partial correlations between QMS, LCQ, and academic outcomes by conducting Bravais-Pearson linear correlation coefficient.
As general criteria, LCQ or a QMS dimension was considered a possible mediator when it was significantly correlated with at least two of the three scholastic grades considered keeping under control all the factorial dimensions of the other questionnairecoherently with step 3 of Baron and Kenny's model, which said that the mediator must affect the dependent variable when the independent variable is controlled MacKinnon, In the third and last step, in line with the second aim of this study, several mediational analyses were carried out.
According to the results of the correlational analyses, and with respect to the simulation study by MacKinnon that stressed the necessity of steps 2 and 3 of Baron and Kenny's modelthe mediational analyses were implemented with factors of the QMS as independent variables, academic achievements as dependent variables, and the conceptions of learning dimensions as possible mediator.