Chiang Kai-shek: The man who lost to Chairman Mao in China's bitter civil war - BBC News
Nov 4, Mao Zedong and Chiang Kai-shek in Chongqing, China, in September tried to bolster the relationship between the Communists and the. Mar 14, What was the relationship between Chiang Kai-Shek and Western powers that held if Chiang Kai Shek had become the leader of China instead of Mao?. The relationship between Chiang Kai Shek and Mao Zedong was primarily adversarial, fighting each other in the Chinese Civil War (–). Chiang Kai.
More later on the extremes to which Chiang was willing to go to accomplish the latter. They agreed in their repudiation of the imperial, dynastic system, and made no moves to reintroduce many of its essential features: But they quarreled over how they might achieve that objective, which led to bloodshed. The early Chinese Communist Party advocated an urban, worker-led revolution and did not regard the peasantry as possessing revolutionary consciousness.
They aimed at retaking the Yangtze Delta and the Chinese heartland — the North China Plain — from the various warlords who held it. Meanwhile, Chiang proved to be remarkably callous toward the rural class. Inin order to slow down an advancing Japanese army, he opened up dikes on the Yellow River and caused severe flooding across three provinces, killing anywhere betweenandpeople a KMT estimate at that time put the death toll atThe incident is something that people in China will continue to debate for a very long time, and it could truly be taught in ethics classes in philosophy departments as a real-life example of a horrific choice of evils.
The Japanese advance was not fully halted, but it was delayed long enough that Henan and Shaanxi provinces were denied to them until later in the war. Hindsight tells us that Mao really milked the horrors of the flood for all it was worth. The real calculation though was the lives lost.
Finishing his schooling, Chiang served in the Imperial Japanese Army from to Return to China[ edit ] After learning of the outbreak October of the Wuchang UprisingChiang returned to China inintending to fight as an artillery officer. He served in the revolutionary forces, leading a regiment in Shanghai under his friend and mentor Chen Qimeias one of Chen's chief lieutenants. In early a dispute arose between Chen and Tao Chen-changan influential member of the Revolutionary Alliance who opposed both Sun Yat-sen and Chen.
Tao sought to avoid escalating the quarrel by hiding in a hospital but Chiang discovered him there. Chiang may not have taken part in the act, but would later assume responsibility to help Chen avoid trouble.
Chen valued Chiang despite Chiang's already legendary temper, regarding such bellicosity as useful in a military leader. During Chiang's time in Shanghai, the British-administered Shanghai International Settlement police watched him and charged him with various felonies. These charges never resulted in a trial, and Chiang was never jailed. In Shanghai, Chiang cultivated ties with the city's underworld gangs, which were dominated by the notorious Green Gang and its leader Du Yuesheng.
Sun Yat-sen's political career reached its lowest point during this time when most of his old Revolutionary Alliance comrades refused to join him in the exiled Chinese Revolutionary Party.
At this time Sun remained largely sidelined; and, without arms or money, was soon expelled from Kwangtung and exiled again to Shanghai. He was restored to Kwangtung with mercenary help in After returning to Kwangtung, a rift developed between Sun, who sought to militarily unify China under the KMT, and Guangdong Governor Chen Jiongmingwho wanted to implement a federalist system with Guangdong as a model province.
They abandoned their attacks on Chen on August 9, taking a British ship to Hong Kong  and traveling to Shanghai by steamer. That same year, Sun sent Chiang to spend three months in Moscow studying the Soviet political and military system. During his trip in Russia, Chiang met Leon Trotsky and other Soviet leaders, but quickly came to the conclusion that the Russian model of government was not suitable for China.
Chiang later sent his eldest son, Ching-kuo, to study in Russia. After his father's split from the First United Front inChing-kuo was forced to stay there, as a hostage, until Chiang wrote in his diary, "It is not worth it to sacrifice the interest of the country for the sake of my son.Biografía Chiang Kai Shek
Chiang resigned from the office for one month in disagreement with Sun's extremely close cooperation with the Comintern, but returned at Sun's demand. The early years at Whampoa allowed Chiang to cultivate a cadre of young officers loyal to both the KMT and himself. Throughout his rise to power, Chiang also benefited from membership within the nationalist Tiandihui fraternity, to which Sun Yat-sen also belonged, and which remained a source of support during his leadership of the Kuomintang.
Competition with Wang Jingwei[ edit ] Chiang right together with Wang Jingwei leftSun Yat-sen died on 12 March creating a power vacuum in the Kuomintang. In August, Liao was assassinated and Hu arrested for his connections to the murderers. Wang Jingwei, who had succeeded Sun as chairman of the Kwangtung regime, seemed ascendant but was forced into exile by Chiang following the Canton Coup.
The SS Yongfeng, renamed the Zhongshan in Sun's honor, had appeared off Changzhou  —the location of the Whampoa Academy —on apparently falsified orders  and amid a series of unusual phone calls trying to ascertain Chiang's location.
On 5 Junehe was named commander-in-chief of the National Revolutionary Army  and, on July 27, he finally launched Sun's long-delayed Northern Expeditionaimed at conquering the northern warlords and bringing China together under the KMT. The NRA branched into three divisions: Having taken Nanjing in March and briefly visited Shanghai, now under the control of his close ally Bai ChongxiChiang halted his campaign and prepared a violent break with Wang's leftist elements, which he believed threatened his control of the KMT.
Chiang Kai-shek - Wikipedia
Now with an established national government in Nanjing, and supported by conservative allies including Hu HanminChiang's expulsion of the Communists and their Soviet advisers led to the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. Wang Jingwei's National Government was weak militarily, and was soon ended by Chiang with the support of a local warlord Li Zongren of Guangxi. Eventually, Wang and his leftist party surrendered to Chiang and joined him in Nanjing.
In December, the Manchurian warlord Zhang Xueliang pledged allegiance to Chiang's government, completing Chiang's nominal unification of China and ending the Warlord Era. Inwhen he was setting up the Nationalist government in Nanjing, he was preoccupied with "the elevation of our leader Dr.
Chinese Civil War
Sun Yat-sen to the rank of 'Father of our Chinese Republic'. Sun worked for 40 years to lead our people in the Nationalist cause, and we cannot allow any other personality to usurp this honored position".
He asked Chen Guofu to purchase a photograph that had been taken in Japan around or When told that it was not for sale, Chiang offered a million dollars to recover the photo and its negative. They must be destroyed as soon as possible.
It would be embarrassing to have our Father of the Chinese Republic shown in a subordinate position". Chiang made great efforts to gain recognition as the official successor of Sun Yat-sen.
In a pairing of great political significance, Chiang was Sun's brother-in-law: Originally rebuffed in the early s, Chiang managed to ingratiate himself to some degree with Soong Mei-ling's mother by first divorcing his wife and concubines and promising to sincerely study the precepts of Christianity.