Attitudes Toward Statistics and Their Relationship with Short- and Long-Term .. to the effects typically found in the social, educational and behavioral sciences. Sometimes a relationship was found between attitudes and behaviors, and frequently refer to correlations. a correlation is a simple statistical measure of the. behavior. It is also apparent that the degree of relationship between attitudes and practices has descriptive; statistical assessment of the degree of association.
Iceberg demonstrating implicit and explicit bias. Source 'The power of knowledge to organise, select, learn and judge comes from values and beliefs as much as, and probably more than, from information and logic' — Thomas Davenport and Laurence Prusak Working Knowledge Attitude: Description and Significance Almost all educational theories encompass teaching and assessment of knowledge, skills and attitudes.
While we find it easier to define knowledge and skills, definitions of attitudes vary. Attitudes have been described as hypothetical constructs that represent a person's like or dislike for anything. Attitude is a judgment made on the 'attitude object' a person, place, task, event, skill, etc. Judgments from attitude can range from positive, negative or neutral. Attitudes arise from an inner framework of values and beliefs, developed over time.
Carl Jung, in his essay on psychological types, defines attitude as "the readiness of the psyche to act or react in a certain way,"1. These three components can also be described as the 'ABC' model: The 'affective' response is one's emotional response to a task or an entity.
The 'behavioural' response is the displayed verbal or behavioural tendency to a task or entity, whereas the 'cognitive' response is the cognitive evaluation of the entity based on an internal belief system. There is considerable overlap in the semantics of beliefs, values and attitudes, however, these are also distinct constructs as illustrated above. Based on the Behaviours of Ourselves and Others One of the key lessons to be learned is that we are at the mercy of expressed behaviours.
For example, someone who regularly arrives late may be considered not very punctual or organised. However, this same person may spend time caring for somebody who is very ill, and their personal time delivering this care may interfere with their prompt arrival to work or lessons. With this new information, they may be viewed from a different perspective. Our attitudes toward observed behaviour will also tint our judgements.
For example, if a person arrives shoddily dressed for an interview, we may feel they have not taken the time to prepare. A person may display false obeisance and ritualistic behaviour when they need a favourable review, or feel they are being observed for performance.
The Relationship Between Beliefs, Values, Attitudes and Behaviours | Owlcation
This may indicate a certain attitude, but the observer needs to delineate the difference between a true attitude and a false behaviour implying an attitude. A person who is constantly fawning and agreeing to everything their superior says may not necessarily be in agreement, but may fawn in order to carry favour.
In assessing behaviour, one needs to be aware of capability. Yet, if the person or persons observed have never received any training to modulate their speech pattern or learn the idioms and phraseology of the language they are communicating in, they may not have the capability to express the right behaviour for the situation.
Attitudes arise out of core values and beliefs we hold internally. Beliefs are assumptions and convictions we hold to be true based on past experiences.
Values are worthy ideas based on things, concepts and people. Thus, increased knowledge might be a key factor that would encourage organic purchase behavior. Overall, if more knowledge about organic products influences consumers' decisions and increases their willingness to pay Barnes et al. Knowledge thus might function as a transmitter, from attitudes to purchase behaviors.
More knowledge about organic products leads to greater congruity between consumers' attitudes and purchase behaviors.
Cognitive dissonance According to cognitive dissonance theory, each person maintains a cognitive view of him- or herself, past behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, and environments Oshikawa, Elements of this view might become dissonant if they are inconsistent or contradict each other.
In an organic market setting for example, consumers express positive attitudes toward organic products but do not buy them, so they might experience dissonance between their own attitudes and behaviors. Therefore, we define the incongruity characterizing organic market as a dissonance arised from contradictory responses that consumers state.
Cognitive dissonance theory suggests that such inconsistencies generate a disturbing, unpleasant sensation for the consumer, who then tries to avoid or prevent the inconsistency Festinger, Nonetheless, when faced with an incongruity between their attitudes and purchase behaviors in the organic market, consumers likely seek to modify the dissonant elements Oshikawa,in accordance with their concerns or orientations.
In fact, Cornelissen et al. Therefore, consumer may change their purchase behavior toward organic products, rather than their attitudes. That way, consumers may show different orientations in their current behavior, based on their perception about their previous behavior.
In this respect, Becker et al. More broadly, orientations related to the attributes and benefits of organic products should lead consumers to relax or correct the cognitive dissonance they experience, due to the difference between their attitudes and purchase behaviors, by increasing their purchase responses.
In organic markets, the benefits associated with the products are mainly environmental protection and health Essoussi and Zahaf, ; Kareklas et al. Relative to conventional products, organic products generally are perceived as offering more nutritional value and being produced in a more natural way, without chemicals or harmful pesticides Ott, ; Wilkins and Hillers, ; Wandel and Bugge, ; Squires et al.
What Contingency Factors Can Improve The Statistical Relationship Between Attitudes And Behavior?
In this sense, organic products also are assumed to be more environmentally friendly Wilkins and Hillers, ; Hughner et al. Consumer orientations related to these organic benefits i.
Consumers' higher environmental orientation leads to greater congruity between their attitudes and purchase behaviors toward organic products. Consumers' higher health orientation leads to greater congruity between their attitudes and purchase behaviors toward organic products. We also consider hedonic orientations, because previous research indicates that consumers perceive organic products as tastier and offering better visual appearances and scent McEachern and McClean, ; Cervellon and Carey, For example, McEachern and McClean link perceptions of better flavor to the increased safety associated with organic food and cite these notions as the primary reasons consumers buy organic products.
Cervellon and Carey also note that consumers consider the hedonic attributes of organic food, such as their visual appearance, scent, and texture, more positively in their post-purchase assessments.
The Relationship Between Beliefs, Values, Attitudes and Behaviours
Therefore, consumers with a more hedonic orientation might be more consistent in their attitudes and purchase behaviors toward organic products, such that they may experience less dissonance. In further support of this prediction, Van Doorn and Verhoef show that consumers oriented toward product quality and taste are less concerned about prices. Therefore, the negative effect of the price premium on the purchase of organic food may be weaker for consumers concerned about the quality and taste of the food.
This preference and orientation can help overcome the barriers of organic consumption and facilitate the translation of positive attitudes into purchases. Consumers' higher hedonic orientation leads to greater congruity between their attitudes and purchase behaviors toward organic products.
Moderating effect of knowledge Previous literature has analyzed environmental concerns and knowledge about organic products as factors that might explain organic or green purchase behavior Kollmuss and Agyeman, ; Mostafa, ; Pagiaslis and Krystallis-Krontalis, For example, Pagiaslis and Krystallis-Krontalis propose a mediation relationship, following a sequence of orientation—knowledge and belief—behavior, such that consumers who are more oriented toward environmental protection are also more informed and have more positive beliefs about green products.
Therefore, knowledge and beliefs may be necessary for purchases of these products to take place. We propose that knowledge might be a moderator, as well as a mediator, in these relationships. Beyond organic literature, knowledge is considered as moderator in the relationship attitude-behavior. Specifically, Berger et al.
Those authors note knowledge increases the attitude strength and, consequently, the effect of the attitude on behavior will be greater. In fact, subjective knowledge will be an important indicator in high involvement, high risk, search product categories.
Information is collected over time for those cases. So, attitude would be stronger as subjective knowledge increases and, accordingly, its effect on behavior. We have predicted that the dissonance experienced as a result of incongruity between attitudes and behaviors might be lower among consumers with more knowledge, such that knowledge might overcome some of the barriers to the consumption of organic products.
In this sense, it could facilitate the transformation from positive attitudes to purchases of organic food.
Nonetheless, we propose knowledge as moderator in the relationship between orientations and attitude-behavior congruence as well. We expect that more informed consumers, who know the attributes and benefits of organic products, respond in ways that are more consistent if their orientations also are linked to these attributes and benefits.
Consumers with more knowledge about organic food will buy even more if their orientations also are aligned with the benefits attributed to organic products, such that the difference between their attitudes toward organic food and their purchase behavior will be smaller.
This reasoning implies interaction effects between knowledge and orientations, such that knowledge accentuates the positive effect of an environmental orientation, health orientation, or hedonic orientation on the congruence between attitudes and purchase behaviors toward organic food.
In other words, knowledge positively moderates the relationship between consumers' orientations and the congruence between their attitudes and behavioral responses. Consumers' environmental orientation exerts a stronger effect on the congruence between their attitudes and purchase behaviors when consumers have more knowledge of organic products. Consumers' health orientation exerts a stronger effect on the congruence between their attitudes and purchase behaviors when consumers have more knowledge of organic products.