Relationship between smoking and cholesterol

relationship between smoking and cholesterol

Smoking effects are numerous, including raising your cholesterol and contributing to heart To maintain a healthy heart, the American Heart Association play a significant role in cardiovascular disease risk among smokers. Significant changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and particles were not Although the strong relationship between smoking and cardiovascular. Keywords: Smoking cessation, HDL cholesterol, Review, Meta-analysis. Go to: Smoking and smoking cessation – the relationship between.

A method of investigating how quitting affects HDL-C, which better avoids confounding, uses within-subject estimates of change. InMaeda et al.

relationship between smoking and cholesterol

Their meta-analysis for HDL-C, based on 29 studies with follow-up periods from 30 days to 2 years or more, showed an increase following quitting of 0. No significant variation was seen by study design, publication year or intra-measurement period increases similar for periods less or greater than 8 weeks. Although more recent reviews have considered effects of quitting on HDL-C e. This review presents an updated meta-analysis using data on changes, more fully investigating how the increase following quitting varies by other factors.

relationship between smoking and cholesterol

Some studies reporting changes in quitters also report changes in continuing and never smokers. We summarize these data.

The effect of quitting smoking on HDL-cholesterol - a review based on within-subject changes

Review Methods Selection of studies and literature searches For selected publications we examined abstracts, and where necessary full text, to find studies satisfying these inclusion criteria: Papers cited by Maeda et al.

New papers were then sought from Collaborative Trials within the Cochrane Library using the same keywords, from reference lists in accepted papers, and from an ongoing project on white blood cell changes submitted for publication.

The selected papers were then separated into studies, further study details being obtained from additional references if required. Data entry Relevant data were entered onto a study and a change database, each study being identified by a 6-letter reference REF. The study database contains one record per study describing study attributes.

The relationship between smoking, cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in adult women.

The change database contains one or more records per study, describing estimates of HDL-C change from baseline. Study attributes recorded include relevant publications, sexes considered, age range, location, years of start, finish and publication, length of follow-up, study design, nature of population studied including smoking and medical criteriastudy size, HDL-C measurement method, fasting or smoking abstinence requirements before measurement, diet or exercise modification during follow-up, and confounding and stratifying variables considered.

Details on the change database include smoking status quitter, continuing smoker, never smokersmoking habits at baseline and follow-up products, cigarette types, amount smokedbiochemical validation methods, intra-measurement period, original measurement unit, data source, and population the data applies to sex, age, intervention groups.

Also recorded is information on the HDL-C change itself mean change, or mean level at both baseline and follow-upits variability confidence limits, SD, SE, N, significance of change and whether the change estimate was direct, or relative to never smokers or to continuing smokers. Change data were entered for never smokers, continuing smokers and quitters, but not for smokers who quit during the follow-up period but resumed before the second HDL-C measurement. Sex-specific data were preferred to combined-sex data.

Data stratified on other variables were entered in addition to overall data, including stratification by later resumption of smoking, where available from studies with multiple follow-ups. Available information on baseline weight, body mass index BMI and other commonly reported physiological parameters, and on change in weight and BMI, was also recorded.

The effect of quitting smoking on HDL-cholesterol - a review based on within-subject changes

Statistical analysis For trials giving results for subjects continuously abstinent since baseline, the quit time was taken as the intra-measurement period. For other trials, it was estimated from the study design details. For observational studies, where quitting could have occurred any time in an interval, the quit time was estimated based on the interval midpoint.

Non-stratified data were generally selected for analysis if available, with certain exceptions.

Smoking Plus High Cholesterol Ups Heart Attack Risk

Where a study stratified the participants by time successfully quit, with data for more time points for persistent quitters than for those resuming smoking by the end of the study, the stratified data were used. Stratified data were also used where the levels were relevant to a factor considered in the heterogeneity analyses see below.

For many studies, the only estimates available were direct not relative to changes in continuing or never smokers and unadjusted for covariates. One of the major risk factors for heart disease, particularly among younger people, is being a smoker. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDCone-third of all deaths from cardiovascular disease are caused by smoking.

Smoking and Your Heart Attack Risk The most well-documented impact that smoking has on cholesterol is how it lowers levels of high-density lipoprotein HDL.

HDL has protective effects against heart disease; it's particularly beneficial for women, who typically have higher levels of the cholesterol than men. Because smoking lowers the concentration of HDL, any benefits women might have are erased if they smoke. No conclusive research has shown that smoking alters levels of low-density lipoprotein LDLbut smoking does worsen the detrimental effects that LDL naturally has on the body, says L. This chronic inflammation of the blood vessels and buildup of fatty plaques is called atherosclerosis.

Blood clots can also travel throughout the body, causing a stroke if blood flow to the brain is blocked. Stopping smoking yields immediate and long-term benefits for your cholesterol levels, and lowers your risk for having a heart attack. In addition, your heart attack risk drops by an estimated 30 percent within a year of quitting.