There is a strong connection between physical activity and eating a healthy diet, Participants .. Dunn JR, Dyck I. Social determinants of health in Canada's immigrant and sedentary behaviors among US immigrant children and adolescents. I left Germany and travelled to Canada to do the first part of my fieldwork, “ Migrants” are often conceived of as being sedentary after an initial migration. . with a migration back- ground' can only be thought of in relation to a. –,  A Canadian study examined the relationship between of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors among US immigrant.
Generally, urban areas have large populations in relatively small areas. Rural areas have small populations and are defined as any settlement lying outside urban or suburban areas.
Footnote 25Footnote 39Footnote Statistics Canada defines an urban area or population centre as having a population of at least and a population density of at least people per km2. Rural areas are those that are outside an urban area. Footnote 82 Rural areas can include small towns, villages and other settlement of fewer than people and areas that contain estate lots, agricultural land, undeveloped areas and remote and wilderness areas. Footnote 82 For First Nations communities, Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada defines urban, rural, remote and special access by proximity and access to nearest service centre: Suburban living By the s, many Canadians lived in what we recognize today as suburbs.
Footnote 63 Evidence shows that suburbs are not a new phenomenon, reaching back to at least medieval times. Their form and function as well as the characteristics of their residents have changed over time, affected by various events such as the Great Depression and the World Wars. Footnote 63 Compared to urban areas that have compact, walkable neighbourhoods, suburban living is often viewed as having an over-reliance on driving and fewer places to walk to, which can lead to less physical activity and more sedentary behaviour.
FootnoteFootnote There is no universal definition of what constitutes a suburb. Footnote 39 How many Canadians live in the suburbs depends on the definition used. An example of a municipality located near a large urban centre is Whistler, British Columbia which is located near Vancouver.
Municipalities that were located farther away from any size of urban centre were less likely to have a growing population.
Examples of municipalities located within large urban areas include Mirabel which is part of the greater Montreal and Cochrane which is part of the greater Calgary area.
Footnote 25 The proportion of Canadians living in single-detached homes, which is a common characteristic of suburban areas, has been decreasing over the last 30 years, although more than half of Canadians lived in single-detached houses in Footnote 79 Urban and rural communities have different characteristics, needs and built environments. Most research on the built environment and its influence on health has focused on urban areas.
Existing research on rural areas suggests that they may need a tailored approach. Footnote 86 Factors such as age, gender, income, education, employment, population mobility, health care access and other characteristics likely play a role.
FootnoteFootnote Determining which areas are healthier and why is challenging due to Multiple definitions of urban, suburban and rural areas. Large variation in health status within urban, suburban and rural areas.
For example, within urban areas, poor health can cluster in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Variations of socio-demographic factors across communities, such as age and income that influence health. Mobility of populations, particularly people moving from rural to urban areas. Changes in determinants of health across communities over time. Typically, data on urban, suburban and rural differences provide only a snapshot of the health of current residents.
Data from the United States suggest it is important to track changes over time.
For example, urban areas in the United States have experienced a larger decrease in mortality rates for many diseases and conditions than rural areas, creating a widening gap in health inequity. Footnote 89 Older Canadian data show that which area is healthier depends on the health outcome being measured.
People living in urban areas tend to have lower mortality rates for injury, poisoning, suicide and motor vehicle accidents as well as lower rates of smoking, arthritis and being overweight or obese and higher rates of people eating recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables than rural or suburban areas.
Footnote 86 Urban areas also tend to have higher rates of cancer, infectious disease, stress and a weaker sense of community belonging. Urban residents are also more likely to be exposed to poor air quality.
Footnote 86Footnote People living in rural areas were more likely to report they were in poor or fair health, were less stressed and had a stronger sense of community belonging than people living in urban or suburban areas.
Residents of rural areas also tended to have the highest rates of mortality from all causes as well as from respiratory disease, the latter of which may be linked to smoking patterns. Generally, the more rural the area, the worse the health outcome for these measures, but the stronger the sense of community belonging. Footnote 86 Determining how healthy suburbs are is complicated and sometimes contradictory.
Urban sprawl has been linked to sedentary lifestyles, easy access to unhealthy food, less physical activity and higher rates of being overweight or obese.
FootnoteFootnote 86 Yet when suburban areas are defined based on the proportion of residents who commuted to work in larger urban centres, those areas with the highest proportion had the lowest rates of people living with any chronic disease or dying from all causes, circulatory disease, respiratory disease, cancer or diabetes.
Men living in these areas also had longer life expectancies than all other areas. Footnote 86 Suburbs with a strong connection to urban centres may benefit more from a range of employment opportunities and services.
Where people grow up may affect their health differently than where they live as adults. For example, some evidence has shown that people who grow up in an urban area react more strongly to stressful social situations than those who grow up outside urban areas. FootnoteFootnote How long an individual has lived in an area may also have an effect.
For example, living or growing up in urban areas has been linked to a higher risk for poor mental health, a difference that cannot be fully explained by socio-demographic factors, such as age, gender, marital status, socioeconomic status or ethnicity.
Footnote Section 3: Building blocks for healthy living 3A: Active neighbourhoods This section explores research on how we can build active communities to improve health.
The majority of Canadians do not get enough exercise. Footnote Being physically active is an essential component to good health, yet Canadians are generally not active enough to gain optimal health benefits. How can we increase physical activity? Building communities that make being active an easy choice is an important step. Figure 3 shows how the complexity of neighbourhood features is likely linked to better health by increasing physical activity.
Overview of how the built environment influences physical activity to influence health. Examples of features in the built environment that may increase physical activity include mixed land use, population density, connected streets, destinations nearby, public transit, paths, trails, sidewalks, recreation areas and facilities, green space and attractiveness. Examples of mediating factors include air pollution, weather and climate, crime, traffic safety and hazards.
Examples of possible health outcomes include reduced risk for premature death, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and poor mental health. These complex interactions between the built environment and mediating factors that lead to human response and health outcomes are all influenced by other determinants of health, such as age, genetics, gender, social environment, income, education, culture and the health care system.
Footnote Being physically active is strongly linked to Footnote Better muscle strength, cardiovascular function and mental health. Healthy development in children and youth. Reduced risk for premature death, even with a small increase in physical activity.
Reduced risk of diseases and conditions such as obesity, heart disease, some types of cancer, diabetes, dementia, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular issues. Better health in people who are living with various diseases and conditions e.
Footnote The Guidelines recommend that: Toddlers should do at least three hours of physical activity over each day of any intensity. Children and youth should do: At least one hour a day of moderate to vigorous aerobic activity. Muscle and bone strengthening exercise at least three times a week. Several hours of light activity per day.
At least minutes of moderate to vigorous aerobic activity per week.
Muscle and bone strengthening exercise at least twice a week. These are recommended levels; however, people can still achieve health benefits from lower levels of activity. Health benefits of increasing activity may be greatest for those who are inactive. Footnote Building neighbourhoods that promote physical activity Neighbourhoods can be designed to promote utilitarian activity to get somewhere or do somethingrecreational activity during leisure time physical activity or both.
Both types of activity can be important contributors for meeting physical activity guidelines and are linked to similar and different types of neighbourhood features. At a population level, efforts have focused on harnessing the built environment to build communities that encourage active transportation in the forms of walking, cycling and using public transit, as well as recreational physical activity.
In some situations, the relationship between the built environment and physical activity has been linked to better health, such as lower body mass index and body fat; improved cardiovascular disease risk factors; lower risk for cancer; lower risk for premature death from all causes; better mental health; and a stronger sense of community belonging.
Footnote Encouraging active transportation: Walking and cycling are common forms of physical activity and active transportation Walking is popular and considered to be a great way to be physically active for all ages. It is often a better choice in busy, dense areas. Footnote Cycling is an efficient way of being moderately to vigorously active and allows people to travel farther distances than walking.
It often has less infrastructure to support it than has walking. FootnoteFootnote What is active transportation? Active transportation is the use of human powered transportation to get places. Examples include biking or walking to work. The Transnational Pattern of Mobility 4. Growing up within the Polish Community Broadening the Scope: The Cosmopolitan Pattern of Mobility 5. From Hypermobility back to Sedentariness? Mobile Engagement with the World and Cosmopolitanism 6.
How We Think of Migration and Mobility The ways in which we, as individuals, understand migration and mobility have deep implications for societies and politics as well as for institutions and every- day practices. This book deals with them in the form of a sociological study. At its core is the duality of migration and mobility, and a possible way to overcome it.
I left Germany and travelled to Canada to do the first part of my fieldwork, consisting of narrative interviews with people of Polish herit- age, which I then continued in Germany in a second pass.
She talked a lot about the cir- cumstances that brought her family to Toronto and about her own experiences in the city. While I did not quite know then what it would turn out to be about, something Caroline said struck me because—I can say now as I write this introduction—it captured the problem I was to tackle: I really like living here. Well, maybe for a year. My parents brought me here, and I cannot imagine leaving them here, do you know what I mean? I went through that.
She makes two important points for what was about to become my re- search object. First, she sees a causality between leaving Canada for good and thus becom- ing a second-time immigrant somewhere else. After immigration, the family had to face several challenges, particu- larly at the beginning of their settlement in Toronto. Caroline remembers that she attended grade two without any knowledge of English. She was then put into an English as a second language class ESL where she got intensive English lan- guage lessons specially designed for non-native speakers.
These childhood experiences, she stresses, are neither easy to understand nor to deal with.
While she eventually mastered the English language, her parents still face discrimination due to their language mistakes, Caroline tells me. Second, while Caroline clearly refuses to re- emigrate, she does not exclude the possibility of a temporary stay abroad.
Apart from the fact that these are highly skilled workers, and thus enjoy a different social position in the scale of global inequality than lower-skilled mi- grant workers, the main difference is the assumption that from the outset the re- location of their life center is not permanent, but temporary.
What she refers to is yet another fundamental aspect of social life in a globalized world: Introduction 15 In general, politicians and the media, as well as various scholarly works in the field of migration studies, define migration as Caroline does. Migration, it seems, requires leaving behind beloved people and places and building a new life in a foreign place.
By now, migration and integration are inextricably linked with one an- other as concepts. Caroline does not want to repeat this process once more. Why it Poses an Issue and How We Can Tackle it in a Sociological Study Human geographical movements have generated strong scholarly interest; they are reflected in the dynamic interdisciplinary field of migration studies and the growing field of mobility studies.
Whereas both research fields and their agendas acknowledge that the nature of migration and mobility is complex and multi- faceted, they nevertheless represent separate scholarly traditions.
For almost one hundred years, migration studies scholars have estab- lished many different approaches and schools of thought. Unlike migration studies, which focus on international movements seen as a permanent or long-term change of residence, mobility studies adopt a broader approach, one encompassing multiple flows and channels.
Stephen Greenblatt argues in his Mobility Studies Manifesto: Indeed, the two scientific agendas overlap Sheller We observe an increasing use of the term mobility in the study and portrayal of migration; indeed, there is a discursive shift away from migration towards—the arguably less politicized term—mobility, used by, for example, the European Commission and other international bodies such as the International Organiza- tion for Migration IOM and the United Nations Development Programme UNDP King et al.
Mobility, however, signals that people may not stay put, but move on, either to their home country or onward to another one. The concept thus emphasizes relatively new forms of movements, such as long-distance Introduction 17 commuting, extended business visits, student exchanges, seasonal and circular migration, which blur the distinction between migration and mobility ibid.: As Schrooten and his col- leagues point out, the negative connotation of migration is—particularly in the European context—omnipresent in the media as well as in policy-making.
As a reaction, the European Commission proposed the introduc- tion of an emergency relocation quota system and an EU-wide resettlement scheme, obliging each country to resettle a certain number of refugees according to its capacities.
Many European states raised objections to this proposal. The objections were based on the perception of incoming refugees as an extra burden and on the conviction that they would stay forever. Popular media and right-wing political parties reinforce this image, a phenomenon to be found across all EU-member states, and more recently in the USA, where the populist billionaire Donald Trump won the elections and just became the 45th president of the United States.
But one thing remains largely forgotten: While certain public figures, e. Janine Dahinden examines, from a critical perspective, a-priori naturalizing categorizations used in research on migration and integration The formation of modern nation-states went hand in hand with the development of an institutional state-migration apparatus differentiating migrants from citizens and institutional- izing these differences.
As Dahinden points out, the migration-related categories, however, can only make sense within the very same logic: