Relationship between power and information

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relationship between power and information

Australas Psychiatry. Jun;14(2) The relationship between power and knowledge. Bott J. Comment on Australas Psychiatry. Dec;13(4) the same banking group work together in the aim to build a new information system here the relations between knowledge and power inside the organizations. Power and authority are separate but related concepts. What is the difference between power and authority in an organization? This is where you can find research-based information from America's land-grant universities.

In addition, the information was produced by conducting semi-structured interviews with each of the 16 informants, who answered the following questions: The production of information was completed by saturation, obtained when the feeling of closure was outlined in the interview exam, that is, the new data provided repeated information.

It was also adopted to declare the saturation of the data, the appreciation of two studies bthrough which the data were saturated with 11 and 16 participants, respectively. The written consent of the institution for data collection was obtained.

Interlocutions from the patient interviews are identified as P1, [ After being captured, the speeches were faithfully transcribed in the form of a report, read exhaustively, then cut out by repetition among the participants.

Then, what Foucault called the system of differentiations, that is, the factors that point to the conditions of the exercise of power, was undertaken. Thus, this system is taken as a way of analyzing these relations and determining what allows acting on the action of others.

However, it is necessary to consider that this study made use of the discourse of patients as the main means for obtaining the information and for its capacity to reveal the experience and the history of each patient admitted at the hospital.

Then, an inter-relation was made between the proposed system and the elements found in the patients' speeches.

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In this context, it is fundamental to consider three points in this interrelationship: From the points presented, the categorization of the information was carried out.

Such information was discussed in the light of the concepts of Freedom and Power Relations according to the French philosopher Michel Foucault. Following this reasoning, the scrutiny of each testimony made it possible to identify the category Power-Knowledge in nursing care relations, and three subcategories: The speech of P7 exemplifies it: The Power of Knowledge and the way it unfolded in other mechanisms of power reaffirms Foucault's conception that "[ They know When participants justified the nursing staff's ability to care for somebody or have someone provide some care, by saying that "they know what they are doing", they are giving meaning to the order and reinforcing the discipline imposed by the hospital routine.

Thus, "they know" means recognizing that they "can" because they know how the system works, they know how treatment develops and they "only want what is good for you.

relationship between power and information

There, we don't have what we want, because they know what they do, you know? This is explained by his idea that, over time, the human being was constituted through power, because, as the discourses were formed, what was considered true and correct, that is, absolute, came exactly from the speeches of the authorities, whether political, economic, or even scientific. In this point of view, Michel Foucault presents the concept of episteme as "the set of relations that can, at a given time, unite discursive practices that give rise to epistemological figures, sciences and, eventually, formalized systems.

Also, we can't mix things up, because there they are professionals. P1 This interpretation is also endorsed by the following participants: P3 Yeah, they're doing it anyway; I have to let them do it because they have to do it anyway. They know what they are doing, right?

The patient and the relation between power-knowledge and care by nursing professionals

P5 When the taking of the discourse of nursing is considered an unprecedented truth, it is necessary to understand that, like knowledge, there is no truth without power, which means that truth is produced by the relations that are maintained with power".

They are in charge It was with this phrase that the participants expressed themselves when they received orders from the Nursing professionals to develop self-care activities, such as referral and supervision of hygienic care, changing clothes and dispensing of visitors in periods when they were not bedridden with a high degree of dependency.

relationship between power and information

The command has meant for them an order of someone knows what to say and that that it is prudent to obey and to comply: Sick people should be in bed. Moreover, he further asserts that one side of this power relationship will always belong to that which is continually determined by the ideas coming from the 'superiors', in other words, by the class that ideologically dominates a given society. They said "this is my job; I have to do it and that's it.

You have to turn around! From the highlighted speeches, one can perceive the presence of a coercive force coming from orders or commands that limit the possibility of voluntary action on the part of the patient.

He also affirms that these powers pervade every social form, modifying and transforming the conduct of individuals, 31 which are subjected to what the author has called "general formulas of domination," making it the object and target of power. The speech of P4 clearly shows how this interpretation corresponds to the reality of caring relationships: P4This is also expressed in the following lines: There are people you can talk to on the same level, but there are others who get to you and make it clear: The only thing I only can do is to comply [ Another situation evidenced was that the non-sharing information between professionals and patients is an appropriate arrangement for the exercise of coercive power, since it hinders informed consent and can lead patients in the direction of an act of agreement with a perspective other than their own, adopting attitudes that are often contrary to their convictions.

The nurse, the Nursing technician, before giving a medicine, he has to say it, because one day they will deal with people without any explanation and it may even be dangerous [ P7 How is that?

relationship between power and information

What I say is of no use [ It seems they are afraid of us reacting in a way that they don't want P When looking at this point of view, it is verified that, in the hospital scope, many of those who seek care are fragile and want to find support and care in this environment.

Under these conditions, it is common to ignore patients' concerns and coerce them to accept the proposed treatment.

relationship between power and information

Thus, feeling coerced during hospitalization means, for patients to realize that they had no influence, control or choice, confirming, through the above to this point, that exercising power may affect the conduct of the others' actions.

In this process, they do not always say something to patients or ask whether they accept that care and, in this way, they exercise the power to care according to their perspective and not the patients': They would come in and say, "Let's take a shower. Then you urinate [ It's a bad feeling [ In order to present the dynamics of the control exercised by the Nursing professionals on patients, it is necessary to take into account, firstly, the environment in which this practice is carried out.

Thus, in this discussion, it is necessary to insert the hospital as an institution, which historically constituted and legitimized itself as a space where the exercise of power is materialized. In this perspective, it is understood that the hospital, as an institution impregnated by routines, norms and hierarchies, does not totally escape these concepts.

  • The relationship between power and knowledge.

Therefore, it is possible to identify that, within the hospital, patients live their daily lives under the same authority and are conditioned to the controlled group, thus automatically positions nursing professionals in the controlling group. Based on this, it can be seen that, as an institution, the hospital produces and reproduces relations of power, a fact that corroborates Foucault's point of view, which shows a historical-genealogical conception that points to institutionalization as an instrument of consolidation and the exercise of power relations.

From this thought comes the shock of Foucault by posing the following question: P3 ; I don't have any freedom here in the hospital [ I felt like a trapped animal P7 ; There I cannot do what I want to do [ It should be pointed out that this commitment to patients' freedom is not only due to the disciplinary or segregative character of the hospital institution, as seen previously, but also due to the dependence that the illness and hospitalization situation causes, because the greater the degree of dependence on nursing care, the smaller the space for patient autonomy, and the more evident is the asymmetric relationship of power.

We depend too much on others [ Other equally significant statements refer to the control exercised by professionals, consciously or not, justified by their knowledge: I showered in the bathroom, but as I can't move my legs, they decided that I had to take a shower in bed I felt bad because I like to take a shower in the shower!

At this juncture, the control here approached occurs by the observance of the aspects that involve the disciplinary regime, composed of coercion techniques such as the delimitation of space, movement, gestures, conduct and behavior.

What is the difference between power and authority in an organization?

The relationship between power and knowledge is, indeed, one of the most complex and sophisticated fields of study in politics and international relations. This essay will closely analyse the intricate connection between power and knowledge, starting from the definition of both terms. The investigation will be supported with the analysis of the fascist period in Italy and the actions that Il duce implemented in order to create a new and controlled perception of truth and reality.

However, defining knowledge is one of the most difficult tasks that one could have — this is because there are many different types of knowledge and different interpretations of it.

relationship between power and information

Knowledge can be merely perceived as the belief in something; yet, a false belief is not regarded as knowledge and a belief based on a lucky guess is not knowledge either. Plato interprets knowledge as a justified true belief.

In this definition, the key element that gives credibility to knowledge is the truth — subtracting the truth to knowledge only leaves a belief or a conviction Audi, Following this logical reasoning, knowledge can be explained as the search and possession of truth Gasset, Truth, or what is true, is the linking point between knowledge and power.

The relationship between power and knowledge.

Nevertheless, Foucault 1 argues that power as such does not exist: Michel Foucault was a French philosopher, historian and social theorist. In many of his works he has analysed the notion of power; he concluded that power could not be defined as something that pre-existing entities possess; rather it is something that is produced in relationships Edkins, Dalh supports this argument using a very simple example: Suppose, then, that as he commands, all the drivers do so; he would be regarded as mentally insane if he insisted that he has the actual power over automobile drivers to compel them to use the right side of the road.

But imagine now, that a policeman is standing in the middle of an intersection — he would order the traffic to turn left or right and the traffic would move as he orders. This would mean that the policeman, acting in this role, has evident power over the drivers.

Power can then be explained as: A has power over B to the extent that A can get B to do something that B would not do otherwise Dahl, The exercise of power as a mode of action upon the actions of others is deeply rooted in the social nexus; this is to say that a society without power relations is a mere abstraction.

In contemporary societies, the state is one of the forms of exercise of power but also all the other forms of power must refer to it. After having defined knowledge as the search and possession of the truth, and power as a power relationship between two entities, the essay will now discuss how truth can be understood as the common denominator and linking point of power and knowledge. It has been explained how truth is the most important requirement for the notion of knowledge.

However, it might seem not clear yet how truth is related to power relations. The regimes of truth are a system of power relations that determine what mechanisms and procedures are used in a particular era to determine what counts as true Foucault, They operate through the elimination, exclusion and also prohibition of 2 other competing truths.

Truth is one of the most important vehicles and expression of power: These relationships modify the field of information between partners, in order to achieve specific objectives or goals, producing effects of power Foucault, Since, as said before, all the forms of power relations must refer to the state, one can easily argue that the relationships of communication modify the information —and so, the truth — in order to achieve state objectives and goals.

Italy experienced one of the most critical moments of its history in the period between and during the fascist domination.