Lexicology And lexicography
A part of Morphology is distinguishing between the different ways of changing a current word, either through inflectional change or word formation. An example. Ullman's definition draws a connection between lexicology and lexicology and other areas of the language: phonology, morphology. LEXICOLOGY DEFINED morphology etymology semantics lexicography . (meaning of sentences, meaning of relations between sentences) Lexical s.
Introduction to Morphology and lexicology Unit 1: What is lexicology? - ppt video online download
Stephen Ullman places semantics and etymology within the scope of lexicology; however, he views lexicology as the study of words as individual units rather than the overall study of the structure of the vocabulary Collins English Dictionary.
Howard Jackson restricts lexicology to the study of words as individual itemsp. Christopher Hall, Patrick H. Analyzing all the aspects of lexicology, we define lexicology as the study of the lexicon, or word-stock, its meaning, the relations among lexemes, the structure of lexemes, their etymology and lexical units, and relations between lexicology and other areas of the language: As the eminent British linguist M.
Halliday presents it, the goal of lexicology is to produce descriptions of the words of a language, and these descriptions are then published as dictionaries and thesauri. Several kinds of lexicology are identified such as general lexicology, special lexicology, contrastive lexicology, historical lexicology, or etymology, and descriptive lexicology.
General lexicology, being a part of general linguistics, studies vocabulary irrespective of the specific features of any particular language and the meaning of words and word-combinations in isolation and in context. Special lexicology studies words and word-combinations, and describes the vocabulary and vocabulary units of a particular language.
It is a part of general lexicology. Contrastive lexicology studies the relations between etymologically related words and word-combinations in different languages. It deals with the contrastive analysis of the lexicon, lexico-semantic relationships, thesauri of entire vocabularies, classification of lexical hierarchies, and taxonomic structure of specialized terminology.
The link between lexicology and grammar is also very close. Each word has a relation in the grammatical system of a language and belongs to some parts of speech. Lexicology studies this relationship in terms of the grammatical meanings as also their relationship with the lexical meaning.
Morphology and Lexicology ??? [Arşiv] - dilFORUM
In the field of word formation, lexicology is still more closely related to grammar. Both study the patterns of word formation.
Language is a social phenomenon. The study of language cannot be divorced from the study of the social system and the development in society. The development and progress in the social, political and technological system is manifest in the vocabulary of a language. New words are introduced and old words die out.
New meanings are added to words and old meanings are dropped out. Lexicology studies the vocabulary of a language from the sociological points also. Lexicography also studies the lexicon as lexicology does but "whereas lexicology concentrates more on general properties and features that can be viewed as systematic, lexicography typically has the so to say individuality of each lexical unit in the focus of its interest".
Lexicography has been generally defined as the writing or compiling1 of a lexicon or dictionary, the art or practice of writing dictionaries or the science of methods of compiling dictionaries. The word was used as early as In lexicology the word is studied as a part of the system. In lexicography it is studied as an individual unit in respect of its meaning and use from the practical point of its use by the reader of the dictionary for learning the language or comprehending texts in it or for any other purpose like checking correct spelling, pronunciation etc.
A word may have different and varied characteristic, all of which may not be needed by a lexicographer. His work is guided more by the purpose of the dictionary and the type of the audience. He presents the words of the lexical system in a way so as to make it more practically useable in real life situation i. For example lexicology may give the theoretical basis for enumerating different meanings of a polysemous word, but how these meanings are worded and presented in the dictionary is governed by the practical problems of utility of the dictionary for different types of readers.
The aim of lexicology is to study the vocabulary of a language as a system, so the treatment of individual units may not claim to be complete because the number of units is very larger. Its goal is systematization in the study as a whole but not completeness as regards individual units.
So it cannot claim to be a perfectly systematic treatment. Here, every entry is treated as an independent problem. Lexicologists present their material in sequence according to their view of the study of vocabulary.
The lexicographers are mostly guided by the principle of convenience in retrieval of the data and arrange words usually in alphabetical order. Lexicology provides the theoretical basis of lexicography. The lexicographer although knowing all the semantic details of a lexical unit might, at times, have to take such decisions and include such features in the definition which might be his own observations.
In lexicology the study of words is objective, governed by the theories of semantics and word formation. There is no scope for individual aberrations. In lexicography, in spite of all the best attempts on the part of the lexicographer, many a definition become subjective, i. General lexicology deals with the universal features of the words of languages. In this sense lexicology is not language specific, whereas lexicography is more or less language specific in spite of its universal theoretical background.
Its theories have no other validation except for practical applicability in the compilation of a dictionary. Whereas lexicology is more theory oriented, lexicography is more concerned with concrete application i.
So "in a certain sense lexicography may be considered a superior discipline to lexicology, for results are more important than intentions and the value of theoretical principles must be estimated according to results". Lexicography is the science and art of compiling dictionary.
The word 'dictionary' was first used as Dictionarius in this sense in the 13th century by an English man John Garland. The word Dictionarium was used in the 14th century. For a medieval scholar a dictionary was a collection of diction or phrases put together for the use of pupils studying Latin.
One of the purposes of dictionary in medieval times was glossing texts and employing synonyms for them. Dictionaries are prepared to serve different practical needs of the people.
Introduction to Morphology and lexicology Unit 1: What is lexicology?
A reader looks at the dictionary mainly from the following points of view: This is the legislative or the court house function of the dictionary2. Johnson described the lexicographer as "a writer of dictionaries. Little did he realize at that time that his dictionary would, for almost a century, serve as the 'Bible' of the English language, the second function noted above.
Besides these a dictionary also serves as a clearing house of information. In order that these functions be performed adequately, the information in the dictionaries should be collected from as many sources as possible, and should be authentic and easily retrievable.
Lexicography in this way is an applied science. Lexicography is not only related to linguistics but is an applied discipline under it. The practical problems of lexicography are solved by the application of the researches of linguistic works. As we shall see below, in his entire work from the selection of entries, fixation of head words, the definition of words to the arrangement of meanings and entries, the lexicographer is helped by the work of different branches of linguistics.
One of the most widely accepted criteria for selection of entries in many dictionaries is usually frequency count. The frequency of head words the lexicographer usually chooses the canonical or the most frequently occurring form of a word. This is found out from the grammatical study of the language. For written languages and languages with established grammatical traditions the problem of selection of the head word is not so difficult as in the case of unwritten languages.
Here the lexicographer has to be his own linguist and have recourse to the linguistic analysis of the language. For data collection he takes the help of field linguistics and for analysis, of descriptive linguistics. For giving definitions of flora and fauna as also of artifacts and other cultural items the lexicographer gives encyclopaedic information.
For this the principle of the hierarchical structure of the vocabulary in terms of folk taxonomy is utilized by a lexicographer. Thus he enters the domain of ethnolinguistics.
For giving spellings and pronunciation of words in his dictionary the lexicographer is helped by the phonetic study of the language. For grammatical information he has to depend on the morphological analysis of the language. In the determination of the central meaning of a polysemous word the lexicographer is helped by historical linguistics. Etymology gives him the clue to decide the basic meaning. In the fixation of the number of meanings and their interrelationship the lexicographer has to take recourse to the linguistic methods of set collocations, valency and selective restrictions etc.
Historical linguistics helps in tracing the origin and development of the form and meaning of the words in historical dictionaries. In descriptive dictionaries such labels as archaic, obsolete etc.
Historical linguistics, especially etymological study, helps in distinguishing between homonymy and polysemy. But where etymological consideration is not applicable for want of such studies it is the native speaker's intuition which is taken as the determining factor.
In this the lexicographer is helped by psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics also helps in providing material for vocabulary development which might be used for the preparation of the graded dictionaries.
Dictionaries give status labels like slang, jargon, taboo, figurative, formal, graamya vulgar etc. These labels are decided with the help of sociolinguistic and stylistic studies. For dialect dictionaries dialectology is a necessary helpmate. A basic prerequisite of bilingual dictionaries is a contrastive analysis of the linguistic systems of the two languages.
This is provided by contrastive linguistics. All this shows that in his work the lexicographer has, to a large extent, always to depend on the findings of different branches of linguistics. But this is not so in actual life. Lexicographical works had preceded grammatical works in many languages. It is not only the findings of linguistics which help in the solution of lexicographical problems, the lexicographical findings are equally utilized by the linguists for different purposes of authenticating their hypothesis, in helping standardization of the languages, especially in the fields of technical terminologies.
The problems of a lexicographer are practical and need based requiring at-the-moment solution. The lexicographer cannot wait for certain findings in the field of linguistics or other disciplines for the solution of his problems. It is here that linguistics might fail to meet the needs of a lexicographer.
There are different schools of linguistics vying with each other in theoretical researches. The findings of one school are contradicted by the other.
There are different studies on the same aspect of a language. The lexicographer might not afford to wait for the final word to come. Moreover, many languages still remain uninvestigated. So the lexicographer has to find his own way.
In his entire work, the lexicographer is guided by the practical considerations of a dictionary user. The linguistic theories are quite important for the lexicographer but practical utility is more basic for him.