Type 1 Diabetes | NIDDK
Insulin is the key hormone when it comes to diabetes: It regulates blood The picture on the left shows the intimate relationship both insulin and glucagon have to each other. Insulin is normally secreted by the beta cells (a type of islet cell) of the pancreas. Introduction to Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes. What does insulin do and what are its roles in type 1 and type 2 diabetes? This hormone made in your pancreas allows cells to use glucose for. Damage to beta cells from type 1 diabetes throws the process off. Glucose doesn' t move into your cells because insulin isn't there to do it.
When a person has type 1 diabetes, the body still can get glucose from food, but the lack of insulin means that glucose can't get into the cells where it's needed. So the glucose stays in the blood. This makes the blood sugar level very high and causes health problems. Once a person has type 1 diabetes, the pancreas can't ever make insulin again. To fix this problem, someone who has type 1 diabetes needs to take insulin through regular shots or an insulin pump. Type 2 diabetes is different from type 1 diabetes.
In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas still makes insulin. But the insulin doesn't work in the body like it should and blood sugar levels get too high. What Causes Type 1 Diabetes? No one knows for sure what causes type 1 diabetes, but scientists think it has something to do with genes.Treatments for Type 1 Diabetes - Nucleus Health
Genes are like instructions for how the body should look and work that are passed on by parents to their kids. But just getting the genes for diabetes isn't usually enough. In most cases, something else has to happen — like getting a viral infection — for a person to develop type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes can't be prevented. Doctors can't even tell who will get it and who won't.
People can have diabetes without knowing it because the symptoms aren't always obvious and they can take a long time to develop. Type 1 diabetes may come on gradually or suddenly.
When a person first has type 1 diabetes, he or she may: Your doctor will likely ask you to meet with a dietitian, clinical pharmacist, and diabetes nurse educator. These providers will also help you manage your diabetes. But, you are the most important person in managing your diabetes. You should know the basic steps of diabetes management, including: How to recognize and treat low blood sugar hypoglycemia How to recognize and treat high blood sugar hyperglycemia How to plan meals, including carbohydrate carb counting How to give insulin How to check blood glucose and urine ketones How to adjust insulin and food when you exercise Where to buy diabetes supplies and how to store them INSULIN Insulin lowers blood sugar by allowing it to leave the bloodstream and enter cells.
How Your Body Uses Glucose and Insulin: American Diabetes Association®
Everyone with type 1 diabetes must take insulin every day. Most commonly, insulin is injected under the skin using a syringe, insulin pen, or insulin pump. Another form of insulin is the inhaled type. Insulin cannot be taken by mouth because the acid in the stomach destroys insulin. Insulin types differ in how fast they start to work and how long they last.
Your doctor will choose the best type of insulin for you and will tell you at what time of day to use it. Some types of insulin may be mixed together in an injection to get the best blood glucose control. Other types of insulin should never be mixed. Most people with type 1 diabetes need to take two kinds of insulin. Basal insulin is long-lasting and controls how much sugar your own body makes when you are not eating.
Meal-time nutritional insulin is rapid acting and is taken with every meal. It lasts only long enough to help move the sugar absorbed from a meal into muscle and fat cells for storage. Your doctor or diabetes educator will teach you how to give insulin injections. At first, a child's injections may be given by a parent or another adult.
By age 14, most children can give themselves their own injections. Inhaled insulin comes as a powder that is breathed in inhaled. It is rapid acting and used just before each meal. Your doctor can tell you if this type of insulin is right for you. People with diabetes need to know how to adjust the amount of insulin they are taking: This helps you adjust your insulin doses to specific meals or activities to prevent blood sugar from becoming too high or too low.
The American Diabetes Association and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics have information for planning healthy, balanced meals. It also helps to talk to a registered dietitian or nutrition counselor. Regular exercise helps control the amount of sugar in the blood. It also helps burn extra calories and fat to reach and maintain a healthy weight. Talk to your doctor before starting any exercise program.
How Your Body Uses Glucose and Insulin
People with type 1 diabetes must take special steps before, during, and after physical activity or exercise. It's not clear, but some researchers theorize that extra fat tissue may cause inflammation, physiological stress, or other changes in the cells that contribute to insulin resistance.
There may even be some undiscovered factor produced by fat tissue, perhaps a hormone, that signals the body to become insulin resistant. Doctors don't usually test for insulin resistance as a part of standard care.
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- Type 1 Diabetes
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In clinical research, however, scientists may look specifically at measures of insulin resistance, often in an effort to study potential treatments for insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. They typically administer a large amount of insulin to a subject while at the same time delivering glucose to the blood to keep levels from dipping too low.
The less glucose needed to maintain normal blood glucose levels, the greater the insulin resistance. Insulin resistance comes in degrees, with important health implications for people with diabetes.
The more insulin resistant a person with type 2 is, the harder it will be to manage the disease because more medication is needed to get enough insulin in the body to achieve target blood glucose levels.
Insulin resistance isn't a cause of type 1 diabetes, but people with type 1 who are insulin resistant will need higher insulin doses to keep their blood glucose under control than those who are more sensitive to insulin.
As with type 2, people with type 1 may be genetically predisposed to become insulin resistant. Or they may develop resistance due to overweight.
Some research indicates that insulin resistance is a factor in cardiovascular disease and other complications in people with type 1.
Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? (for Teens)
Counterattack While it may not be possible to defeat insulin resistance entirely, there are ways to make the body cells more receptive to insulin. Getting active is probably the best way; exercise can dramatically reduce insulin resistance, in both the short and long terms.
In addition to making the body more sensitive to insulin and building muscle that can absorb blood glucose, physical activity opens up an alternate gateway for glucose to enter muscle cells without insulin acting as an intermediary.