Relationship Between DNA Bases Genes, Proteins and Traits | Sciencing
(A few genes produce other molecules that help the cell assemble proteins.) During the process of transcription, the information stored in a gene's DNA is. Amino acids joined together form a polypeptide and polypeptides make up proteins. Each gene, a distinct segment of DNA codes for a different protein. Proteins. DNA is the chemical that chromosomes and genes are made of. DNA itself Each codon tells the cell which amino acid to add to the protein. People with sickle cell anemia have a single difference in the letters of their.
All About DNA and Proteins
And still others like the globins help our blood take oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from our cells. Beta Globin Hemoglobin Let's look at the HBB gene and the beta globin protein as an example to make this all more concrete.
From here on out, I will call beta globin by its more common name, hemoglobin. The hemoglobin gene, HBB, is found on chromosome This chromosome is a little less than million DNA letters long and HBB is just one of its over different genes.
DNA and Proteins - Genetics Generation
Chromosome 11 is definitely one of the most gene-rich chromosomes we have. The actual instructions for making hemoglobin are found in letters within this letter stretch.
The other letters are used to figure out when, where, and how much of the protein to make. A quick summary up to this point. The instructions for hemoglobin are written in the three letter words or codons I talked about earlier. To understand how these codons work, I need to give a brief description of what a protein is. Proteins are strings of amino acids stuck together. The number and particular order of the 20 different amino acids determines what a protein can do.
Proteins can range anywhere from 34, amino acids in the muscle protein titin to less than amino acids in proteins like insulin. As I said, the instructions for putting a protein together are found in the codons of a gene. Each codon tells the cell which amino acid to add to the protein.
To make things easier, we'll split this up into three letter words: Each of these codons tells a cell which amino acid to add. For example, an ATG tells the cell to add a methionine or Met. So, like most other proteins, hemoglobin starts out with Met.
Next comes a valine Valthen a leucine Leuetc. When we keep adding amino acids we end up with the following: This goes on for another amino acids and you have hemoglobin.
- DNA and Proteins
Hemoglobin is a critical protein in our blood. It carries oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from cells. We need for the amino acids to be put together just right or we can end up with a disease. They also have structural aspects that regulate how they function. This is similar to a switch that turns different functions on and off. A gene will only work in specific cells for a specific duration of time, as well as other regulatory aspects.
What is a Protein? A protein is an abundant and complicated molecule that is found in your body. There are many different types of proteins, including: Structural proteins Messenger proteins Enzymes They play roles such as forming hair and skin or controlling various functions through hormones.
Proteins can also increase how quickly a reaction occurs in the body or perform functions such as creating haemoglobin for blood cells.Genes, DNA and Chromosomes explained
It helps if you imagine mailing a letter to someone who lives far away from your home. Rather than hand your friend a letter, think about the realistic process you go through to get that letter delivered. You have to first write the letter itself, and then mail it before it reaches its final destination.
This process is actually quite a similar but simplified version of how DNA codes for proteins. The first step that occurs is a process known as transcription, where the important information in the gene is 'written' down on a different molecule. This molecule acts as a messenger to carry the information to other parts of the cell. The cell can then receive the information before a process known as translation comes into play.
If you think about that letter again, imagine your friend speaks a different language than you do, which means the letter must be translated before your friend can understand the contents. The same is true for the process of translation that occurs with DNA.