Cultural diversity - Wikipedia
intergovernmental and civil society organisations have been working on the theory behind the ment to the relationship between culture and development involves the need to perform .. 14 avesisland.info services/single-view/news/ avesisland.info avesisland.info considered, one mechanism which, in my view, has not yet received sufficient attention is culture Economic History Society of Southern Africa pp SБ .. most well known hypotheses about the relationship between history, culture, and. PDF | Mass media is treated as the fourth pillar of democracy. Today we live in a of new cultural elements in a society may also be another society. The cultural .
I also enjoy the article, short though it is, for touching on a number of related points which only serve to underline the way in which 'food studies' is a great connector of human behaviours in vast series of activities, so in a couple of hundred years we visit ancient Greece, medieval Europe, 19th-century haute cuisine, the poor of Paris and the modern cook in the normal household. I confess the entry is open to criticism for not extending its remit to other cultures than the West, for example not touching on doniburi in Japan, but this perversely reinforces my affection for the piece as it indicates just how infinitely extensible the Companion format can be and how from small beginnings giant castles can arise.
What do you think is the most commonly held misconception in your subject area? My response to this is that there are two allied misconceptions: The Companion is not too sympathetic to the gastronomic viewpoint.
Alan Davidson was healthily sceptical of any hint of pomposity or self-importance and remained open to influence by many cultures while studiously avoiding any false hierarchy of the senses, on the one hand, or of culinary worth. If it was eaten, it had its own value, whatever it might be.
The time when we shared a perception of cookery as a top-down activity: Foodways and food culture are subjects worth studying for their own sake, without interposing an arbitrary point of view such as that with pays constant homage to France. That country's culinary heritage may have been accorded UNESCO protection, but it is only one amongst many that deserve our attention.
I would be intrigued to ask the 18th-century English cookery writer Hannah Glasse to dine with me. The use of fire for cooking is a human cultural universal Two Views of Culture[ edit ] Etic An etic view is a judgment or perspective about a culture, gained based on an analysis from an outsider's customs and culture.
Etic view minimizes the acceptance between two parties. Therefore, the importance of having an anthropological knowledge is greatly beneficial. There are so many situations where a person can have or get an etic view on. For example, if an American anthropologist went to Africa to study a nomadic tribe, their resulting case study would be from an etic standpoint if they did not integrate themselves into the culture they were observing.
Some fields of anthropology may take this approach to avoid altering the culture that they are studying by direct interaction. The etic perspective is data gathering by outsiders that yield questions posed by outsiders. One problem that anthropologists may run in to is that people tend to act differently when they are being observed. It is especially hard for an outsider to gain access to certain private rituals, which may be important for understanding a culture.
Etic ethnographic works often use exotic language when describing the "other". Emic An emic view of culture is ultimately a perspective focus on the intrinsic cultural distinctions that are meaningful to the members of a given society.
While this perspective stems from the concept of immersion in a specific culture; the emic participant is not always a member of that culture or society. Studies done from an emic perspective often include more detailed and culturally rich information than studies done from an etic point of view.
Because the observer places themselves within the culture of intended study, they are able to go further in-depth on the details of practices and beliefs of a society that may otherwise have been ignored. However, the emic perspective has its downfalls.
Studies done from an emic perspective can create bias on the part of the participant, especially if said individual is a member of the culture they are studying, thereby failing to keep in mind how their practices are perceived by others and possibly causing valuable information to be left out. The emic perspective serves the purpose of providing descriptive in-depth reports about how insiders of a culture understand their rituals, beliefs, and traditions.
Enculturation[ edit ] Enculturation is a process by which we obtain and transmit culture. This process is experienced universally among humans. It describes how each individual is affected by prohibited behaviors and beliefs, which are 'proscribed' rather than encouraged behaviors and beliefs, which are 'prescribed'.
Enculturation results in the interpretation of these ideals established by our culture and the establishment of our own individual behaviors and beliefs. In general, enculturation is a refereed journal devoted to contemporary theories of rhetoric, writing, and culture, and invites submissions on rhetoric, composition, media, technology, and education. Cultural Transmission[ edit ] Barack Obama shows multi-cultural respect by hosting a Seder dinner. Seder is a Jewish tradition passed down through families for generations.
Cultural Transmission is the passing of new knowledge and traditions of culture from one generation to the next, as well as cross-culturally. Cultural Transmission happens every day, all the time, without any concept of when or where. Everything people do and say provides cultural transmission in all aspects of life. In everyday life, the most common way cultural norms are transmitted is within each individuals' home life.
With every family, there are traditions that are kept alive. The way each family acts and communicates with others and an overall view of life are passed down. Parents teach their kids every day how to behave and act by their actions alone. Outside of the family, culture can be transmitted at various social institutions.
Places of worship, schools, even shopping centers are places where enculturation happens amongst a population. Social Institutions[ edit ] Social institutions are a framework of social relationships that link an individual to the society, through participation. The forms of these social relationships can vary greatly across political, economic, religious, and familial platforms. Cross culturally, these relationships require understanding of the norms, values, and traditions that make them functional.
Cultural transmission takes place within these relationships throughout an individual's lifetime. Examples of these relationships range from marriage to participating in church. The complexities that govern this relationship are unique and highly culturally bound.
Often external factors such as economics and health issues come into play. Studies were done in rural Malawi that discuss these issues further: Everything one does throughout their life is based and organized through cultural symbolism, which is when something represents abstract ideas or concepts.
Symbols can represent a group or organization that one is affiliated with and mean different things to different people, which is why it is impossible to hypothesize how a specific culture will symbolize something. Some symbols are gained from experience, while others are gained from culture. One of the most common cultural symbols is language.
For example, the letters of an alphabet symbolize the sounds of a specific spoken language. Hawaiian culture presents a good example of symbols in culture through the performance of a Lua which is a symbol of their land and heritage through song and dance  Symbols can have good or bad meanings depending on how others interpret them.
For example, the Swastika shown on the German Flag back in World War 2 means good fortune in some religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism and often used on designs, but after World War 2 the meaning of the Swastika shifted to a negative side among Americans.
Street gangs have used colors and gang signs to show their affiliation to a gang. Symbols are also extremely common and important in religion. Churches, mosques and temples are places where people gather to practice a shared belief or faith and establish relationships based on this commonality, but many of these individuals will spend most of their time at school, work or other places where they are not amongst people with the same belief so they often wear a symbol of their religion to express belief.
For example, a cross is usually associated with Christianity as churches often have them on their buildings to identify it as a setting of Christian worship. Some Christians wear the cross in the form of jewelry and in some cases in the form of a body tattoo. Other religions make use of symbols as well such as the Star of David in Judaism. Language is the most used form of symbolism. There are 6, known living languages. Such diversity in languages is caused by isolation.
Most languages have a different "symbol" for each letter, word, or phrase. The use of symbols is adaptivewhich means that humans can learn to associate new symbols to a concept or new concepts with a symbol. An example may be drawn from two populations who speak different languages that come into contact with one another and need to communicate.The Connection Between Language and Culture
They form a language that has a large degree of flexibility in using either language's symbols in this case patterns of sound or a hybrid set of symbols to communicate messages back and forth. This contact language, or pidgin gradually gives way to a creole with a more formal set of symbols wordsgrammatical rules for their organization, and its own native speakers who transmit the language from generation to generation. It is important for anthropologists to consider their own cultural background when looking at symbolism in a different culture.
This is because many symbols, though similar in appearance, can mean drastically different things. These symbols can best be understood or interpreted through the eyes of the culture that they pertain to, otherwise they may lose their unique significance. This symbol is almost identical to the Nazi Swastika, and therefore brings a negative response from many Americans.
Although the Native American symbol has nothing to do with Nazi or Germanic symbolism, this design is rarely used on blankets today because of misinterpretation of the symbol.
This is the first scene painted entirely by Costaggini. Ethnocentrism is the term anthropologists use to describe the opinion that one's own way of life is natural or correct. Some will simply call it cultural ignorance.
Those who have not experienced other cultures in depth can be said to be ethnocentric if they feel that their lives are the most natural way of living. Some cultures may be similar or overlap in ideas or concepts. However, some people are in a sense, shocked to experience differences with individuals culturally different than themselves. In extreme cases, a group of individuals may see another culture's way of life and consider it wrong, because of this, the group may try to convert the other group to their own ways of living.
Fearful war and genocide could be the devastating result if a group is unwilling to change their ways of living. Ethnocentrism is seen throughout Asiathe way of eating is to use chopsticks with every meal.
These people may find it unnecessary to find that people in other societies, such as the American society, eat using forks, spoons, knives, etc. Since these countries use chopsticks to eat every meal, they find it foolish for other cultures to not use utensils similar to chopsticks; however, they do accept the fact that they use different utensils for eating.
This example is not something extreme that could lead to genocide or war, but it is a large enough gap between these cultures for people to see their way of eating as the natural or best way to typically eat their food. Another example of ethnocentrism is colonialism.
Colonialism can be defined as cultural domination with enforced social change. Colonialism refers to the social system in which the political conquests by one society of another leads to "cultural domination with enforced social change". A good example to look at when examining colonialism is the British overtake of India. The British had little understanding of the culture in India which created a lot of problems an unrest during their rule. Ethnocentrism may not, in some circumstances, be avoidable.
We often have instinctual reactions toward another person or culture's practices or beliefs. But these reactions do not have to result in horrible events such as genocide or war. In order to avoid conflict over culture practices and beliefs, we must all try to be more culturally relative. Ethnocentrism is one solution to the tension between one cultural self and another cultural self.
In many instances Anthropologist have allowed ethnocentrism to determine research and influence analyses. For example Ajami is a language created centuries ago by Islamic teachers and used throughout Sub Saharan Africa that combines Arabic script and another language such as Swahili, Wolof, Hausa or Berber. Many African historical documents are in Ajami. However, there are some historians and anthropologist who have refused to acknowledge African history due to ethnocentric views and do not value the information those historical documents may reveal.
This is just one of the many examples where personal views have interfered with the understanding of other cultures and societies. Cultural Relativism[ edit ] The Cross-Cultural Relationship is the idea that people from different cultures can have relationships that acknowledge, respect and begin to understand each others' diverse lives. People with different backgrounds can help each other see possibilities that they never thought were there because of limitations, or cultural proscriptions, posed by their own traditions.
Traditional practices in certain cultures can restrict opportunity because they are "wrong" according to one specific culture. Becoming aware of these new possibilities will ultimately change the people that are exposed to the new ideas. This cross-cultural relationship provides hope that new opportunities will be discovered, but at the same time it is threatening. The threat is that once the relationship occurs, one can no longer claim that any single culture is the absolute truth.
Cultural relativism is the ability to understand a culture on its own terms and not to make judgments using the standards of one's own culture. The goal of this is promote understanding of cultural practices that are not typically part of one's own culture.
Using the perspective of cultural relativism leads to the view that no one culture is superior than another culture when compared to systems of morality, law, politics, etc. This is also based on the idea that there is no absolute standard of good or evil; therefore, every decision and judgment of what is right and wrong is individually decided in each society. The concept of cultural relativism also means that any opinion on ethics is subject to the perspective of each person within their particular culture.
Overall, there is no right or wrong ethical system. In a holistic understanding of the term cultural relativism, it tries to counter ethnocentrism by promoting the understanding of cultural practices that are unfamiliar to other cultures such as eating insects, genocides or genital cutting.
There are two different categories of cultural relativism: Complete acceptance and tolerance for any type of cultural practice. Critiquing cultural practices in terms of human rights. Absolute cultural relativism is displayed in many cultures, especially Africa, that practice female genital cutting. By allowing this procedure to happen, females are considered women and then are able to be married.
FGC is practiced mainly because of culture, religion and tradition. Outside cultures such as the United States look down upon FGC as inhumane, but are unable to stop this practice from happening because it is protected by its culture.
A Chinese woman with her feet unbound Cultural relativism can also be seen with the Chinese culture and their process of feet binding. Foot binding was to stop the growth of the foot and make them smaller.
The process often began between four and seven years old. A ten foot bandage would be wrapped around the foot forcing the toes to go under the foot. It caused the big toe to be closer to the heel causing the foot to bow. Because men only wanted women with small feet, even after this practice was banned inwomen still continued to do it. To Western cultures the idea of feet binding might seem like torture, but for the Chinese culture it is symbol of beauty that has been ingrained in the culture for hundreds of years.
The idea of beauty differs from culture to culture.
Society and Culture - Oxford Reference
Qualitative Method[ edit ] The Qualitative Method is an anthropological research method designed to map out detailed descriptions of social activities within a culture. The observation s may include social norms, activities, religious rituals, cultural ideology and etc. The reasons behind the observation can vary depending on the intention of the anthropologist.