for healthy behaviour, healthy lifestyles for children and youth, smoking, and Many participants emphasized the link between healthy lifestyles, including diet. Aim: To determine the healthy lifestyle behaviors of students in the nursing and midwifery department and their relationship with health locus of control. Methods: . Our knowledge about the role of lifestyle behaviour on health and The initial hypothesis was linked to the relationship of saturated fatty acids.
One of the early studies of this type was carried out in Greece . Presently, many other studies tend to refine these concepts and to find a better definition of the ideal diet for health purposes.
An additional important point, that is not always focused on the description of the Mediterranean Diet, is the need to reduce the daily consumption of salt .
Presently, in most populations, its use exceeds by two times the physiological needs, favouring the elevation of blood pressure and perhaps the evolution of atherosclerosis.
There is indeed increasing evidence for additional blood pressure-independent pathways linking excess salt intake to the process of atherosclerosis, and some meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials have shown that a moderate reduction of salt intake is associated with a reduction of blood pressure and, consequently, with a reduction of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in hypertensive individuals .
However, the response of patients to these recommendations is heterogeneous, mainly due to variable compliance with the doctor's prescription, and, to a lesser extent, to different individual BP salt sensitivity .
There is accordingly, plenty of room to intervene favourably with a potentially high impact for prevention. Another important point, frequently ignored, is the adverse effect of trans fatty acids that are artificially produced and introduced in prepared foods, although this is a declining trend, at least in some countries .
Labels of food composition must be the guidance for avoiding its use. The three basic behavioural risk factors, i. Some investigations also included alcohol consumption independently from diet and some indices of obesity, such as body mass index and waist circumference or even other behaviours. The duration of follow-up was variable but usually covered 10 years and up to 24 years, except one study that reported follow-up data of 50 years.
All-cause mortality was the endpoint analysed most, but some contributions also considered cardiovascular diseases, coronary heart disease and cancer mortality, while only one presented data on the incidence of major coronary heart disease CHD events.
The reported relative risk of people with healthy behaviours versus those with unhealthy behaviours provided a wide range, from 0. However, this depended upon the number of combined behaviours up to sixthe kind of endpoint, age range, gender, and duration of follow-up.
The impact of basic lifestyle behaviour on health: how to lower the risk of coro
The conclusion from the above reports is that, despite differences in risk factor measurement techniques, age range, gender, geographical and cultural settings, duration of follow-up and endpoint definition, the outcome seems relatively homogeneous across the various experiences. A recent meta-analysis confirms and reinforces this impression . Therefore, attention should be paid, if needed, to control these risk factors by the use of drug intervention, which becomes an integral part of preventive action.
Detailed indications and guidelines are available from expert committees of various scientific organizations: We also present these data so that they might be used pragmatically by practising cardiologists to foster lifestyle changes aimed at prolonging life expectancy in middle-aged individuals. This example deals with the Italian Rural Areas of the Seven Countries of Cardiovascular Diseases study, comprising 1, middle-aged men studied during a follow-up of 50 years when the cohort was almost extinct, with a final survival of 2.
For the purposes of this analysis, three basic behavioural characteristics were considered, i. Cigarette smoking habits were derived from a standard questionnaire. Three classes of smoking habits were used for analysis: Physical activity was derived from a questionnaire that matched some simple questions with the profession, classifying people as sedentary, moderate or vigorous. The mean caloric expenditure of each class has been estimated by two different methods . Such classification was confined to work activity, since in the middle of the last century leisure physical activity was practically nil in the explored rural environment.
Dietary habits were measured using the dietary history, and the outcome was converted into 18 food groups. Factor analysis, for identification of dietary pattern, was carried out, and factor score estimates were produced for each subject, then classified into three classes defined as non-Mediterranean Diet, Prudent or Intermediate Dietand Mediterranean Diet.
In the factor analysis, the following ratios were found between the class called Mediterranean Diet and that called non-Mediterranean Diet for food groups intake that were critical in the identification of factor score: On the HPLP, the students in this study scored highest on self-realisation, followed by interpersonal support, health responsibility, stress management, nutrition, and exercise. In previous studies, self-realisation also had the highest mean score and exercises the lowest [ 13192122 ].
In Hong et al. Accordingly, it can be said that exercise is the sub-dimension least emphasised among students [ 8 ].
In the present study, the health responsibility sub-dimension score averages of students in their fourth year were higher. This finding is supported by the literature [6,7,21 23].
This is not in line with most previous findings. Tambag reported that the mean health responsibility sub-dimension score of the youngest age group was highest in their sample [ 21 ].
Likewise, Cihangiroglu and Deveci showed that as age increased, health responsibility and interpersonal support scores also increased [ 13 ]. Al-Kandari and Vidal found a significant positive correlation between stress management scores and age in their student sample [ 24 ].
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However, Ozyazicioglu et al. In the present study, students with higher academic achievement also appeared to be better at health responsibility, nutrition, interpersonal support, and stress management.
We found that the mean health responsibility and stress management averages scores of non-smoking students were significantly higher than those of smokers. There are similar results in other studies [ 2125 ]. Von Ah et al also reported low social support levels among students who smoked In general, smoking appears to have an adverse effect on healthy lifestyle behaviors.Five-Factor Model of Personality and Sexual Behavior
Nevertheless, Von Ah et al. Thus, as with smoking, it appears that an increase in alcohol consumption can have a negative influence on a healthy lifestyle. We revealed that students with higher levels of emphasis on health had higher mean scores on health responsibility, nutrition, and stress management than other groups.
They also had higher mean scores on the exercise sub-dimension than students with lower levels of emphasis on health.