Germany–United States relations - Wikipedia
Economic relations between Germany and the United States are Germany remains in fifth place, behind Canada, China. A special clause in the new US-Mexico-Canada trade agreement would to fundamental realignments of international economic relations and. China–United States relations, also known as U.S.–Chinese relations, Chinese– U.S. relations, or Sino-American relations, refers to international relations between the People's Republic of China and the United States of America. The history of the relationship can be traced back to when the United States Currently, China and the United States have mutual political.
They supported missionaries inmore than inand in By they opened 16 American universities, six medical schools, and four theology schools, together with middle schools and a large number of elementary schools. The number of converts was not large, but the educational influence was dramatic. Punch Aug 23, by J. Pughe In the s the major world powers FranceBritainGermanyJapanand Russia began carving out spheres of influence for themselves in China, which was then under the Qing dynasty.
The United States demanded this practice to end so that all nations could trade on an equal footing. Secretary of State John Hay sent diplomatic letters to these nations, asking them to guarantee the territorial and administrative integrity of China and to not interfere with the free use of treaty ports within their respective spheres of influence.
Hay took this as acceptance of his proposal, which came to be known as the Open Door Policy. Japan also presented a further challenge to the policy with its Twenty-One Demands in made on the then- Republic of China.
Japan also made secret treaties with the Allied Powers promising Japan the German territories in China. InJapan invaded and occupied Manchuria. The United States along with other countries condemned the action, leading to U. China was reunified by a single governmentled by the Kuomintang KMT in Buckwhose Nobel lecture was titled The Chinese Novel. They discovered the demand for Western education was much stronger, and much more elite, than the demand for Christianity.
Programs were set up to fund Chinese students In American colleges. Rooseveltand Winston Churchill at the Cairo Conference in A series of Neutrality Acts had been passed in the US with the support of isolationists who forbade American aid to countries at war. Because the Second Sino-Japanese War was undeclared, however, Roosevelt denied that a state of war existed in China and proceeded to send aid to Chiang.
American public sympathy for the Chinese was aroused by reports from missionaries, novelists such as Pearl S. Roosevelt demanded an apology and compensation from the Japanese, which was received, but relations between the two countries continued to deteriorate.
The Roosevelt administration gave massive amounts of aid to Chiang's beleaguered government, now headquartered in Chungking. Congress amended the Chinese Exclusion Act and Roosevelt moved to end the unequal treaties by establishing the Treaty for Relinquishment of Extraterritorial Rights in China. However, the perception that Chiang's government was unable to effectively resist the Japanese or that he preferred to focus more on defeating the Communists grew.
China Hands such as Joseph "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell —who spoke fluent Mandarin Chinese—argued that it was in American interest to establish communication with the Communists to prepare for a land-based counteroffensive invasion of Japan. It is now easier for farmers to sublease their small tracts of land, allowing for the consolidation necessary for larger-scale industrialization and farm management. Primary agriculture sector output has been increasing steadily in recent years, and the fisheries industry has shifted orientation from fishing to aquaculture.
Going forward, crop cultivation will be adapted to meet evolving domestic demand. Furthermore, other key agriculture inputs have not kept pace with the development of Chinese industry e. China is committed to developing its agricultural science and technology capacity and is vigorously promoting the adoption of new technologies.
For example, Chinese farmers are increasingly purchasing their own agricultural machinery, contributing greatly to increased productivity. In the last 30 years, China has also cultivated as many as 1, new crop species and has improved primary crop yields through, for example, the successful cultivation of super rice and dwarf wheat. Agricultural infrastructure has deteriorated with the rise in extreme weather conditions and remains vulnerable to natural disasters.
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Irrigation facilities remain limited and often lack effective management and proper maintenance. Urbanization has decreased the availability of quality arable land, while water loss, soil erosion, infertility, salinization, the overuse of fertilizers, and acidification have led to the loss of arable lands.
Finally, ensuring the safety of agricultural products remains difficult due to the decentralization of the agricultural sector, extensive production, and low-technology solutions for preventing and controlling diseases and pests.
Given its relatively small population and corresponding domestic consumption, along with its advantages in the production of agricultural commodities, Canada is naturally positioned to be a net exporter of agriculture and agri-food products. In terms of products, Canada is a world top five exporter of wheat and canola and a large exporter of beef and pork.
However, bilateral trade represents only 2. These imports have been dominated by the grain and oilseed milling industry in recent years, particularly canola products. Meat, fish and seafood, and vegetables are other important agriculture products that China sources from Canada. Fish and seafood products made up close to one third of total agricultural imports from China in value, while other major imports included vegetables, fruits and nuts, and processed fruit and vegetable products.
In terms of bilateral investment in the agriculture sector, a number of Canadian companies have invested in areas such as aquaculture research and development, viniculture, livestock genetics and processing such as potatoes, seafood and oilseeds in China. While Chinese outbound investment in agriculture is still at a preliminary stage, Chinese firms are investing in Canadian pork processing and grains and oilseeds processing.
These investments have largely been made to secure a steady supply of important foodstuffs. Ongoing Cooperation Current bilateral cooperation in the agriculture and agri-food sector is strong and diverse. In addition to working together on issues of mutual interest in multilateral forums, such as the World Trade Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Canada and China have developed a number of formal bilateral cooperation mechanisms.
These far-reaching agreements cover a wide range of themes, from biotechnology and sustainable agriculture to food safety. Some key cooperative mechanisms have also been developed in the area of international development, with the Canadian International Development Agency having funded projects for technology adoption and training in the Chinese agriculture sector over the last 25 years.
Chinese enterprises and farmers have welcomed these cooperation programs, as they have helped them adopt international production standards. Scientific cooperation is also an important dimension of the bilateral cooperation relationship.
China–United States relations - Wikipedia
China has also forged ties with provincial governments in Canada, in particular the western provinces. Finally, several industry groups from both countries have developed meaningful partnerships and are cooperating on issues of mutual interest. In addition to the bilateral dimension, Canada and China cooperate in the context of international research initiatives.
Canada and China are founding members of the recently established Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases, whose goal is to increase international cooperation and investment in research and technology development aimed at reducing greenhouse gases and enhancing the productivity and resilience of farming systems.
This forum could be an avenue for strengthening cooperation between Canada and China. Canada and China are also working together within the Group on Earth Observation GEO Agriculture Community of Practice in a global effort to harmonize national systems for agriculture monitoring and production forecasting in order to address food price volatility and increase agricultural production and productivity.
For example, both countries maintain tariffs on certain agricultural products. Canada, an original WTO member, maintains average applied agricultural tariffs of Stakeholders from both countries have also identified sanitary and phytosanitary measures as well as differing technical regulations and standards as other hindrances that delay or disrupt trade or make it less predictable. In particular, administrative capacity constraints that delay government certification of establishments for export or the completion of export protocols for new products create costly delays for exporters.
As Canada and China continue to strengthen their bilateral relationship and as challenges are successfully addressed, both countries will be better able to foster increased trade. While China has attained self-sufficiency in a number of agricultural commodities, the increasing importance of imports highlights the growing gap between domestic production and consumption of certain commodities. Diversifying sources of imported agricultural products will help China secure a steady supply by avoiding the effects of possible supply shortage due to export constraints from countries on which China is highly dependent.
Canada is also able to partly meet the demands of increasingly sophisticated Chinese consumers seeking higher-end protein sources such as beef, pork, and fish and seafood products as well as functional foods. Growth in intermodal trade and expanded air service agreements provide new options and backhaul opportunities for expanding trade in these goods.
China is increasing production of commodities and products in areas where exports to Canada and the world are growing, including aquaculture and horticulture such as fresh temperate-climate fruits. Similarly, it is expected that imports of processed products from China will increase due to more competitive processing conditions.
For example, Chinese fruit mixtures are increasingly making their way into the Canadian market. Canadian imports from China in this sector more than doubled over the past five years and there is room for further growth in the coming years. Beyond trade in agricultural products, opportunities exist to build on existing robust collaboration in scientific research. In terms of agricultural technology, Canada has developed world-class expertise in areas that correspond to some of the domestic challenges facing China as it furthers modernization.
Canada has also long been a leader in animal husbandry, plant breeding and crop selection and has experienced high rates of return from research and development in both its crop and livestock sectors. Joint partnerships and investments with China could foster innovations that more accurately reflect the needs and demands of consumers in both countries.
In particular, China is looking to develop human capital in biological breeding innovation and in prevention and control of plant and animal diseases to increase productivity of its agricultural sector. Top of page B. Recognizing the domestic and global challenges relating to the environment and our shared interest in addressing them, Canada and China have been collaborating through a number of joint initiatives.
The Canadian cleantech industry is characterized by a high degree of integration of goods and services activities, with many firms combining both elements in their solutions. The sector also has a number of vertically integrated companies that undertake innovation through to commercialization. Footnote 9 Their expertise helps explain why Canadian cleantech companies with proprietary technologies are nine times more likely to export than the average Canadian SME Footnote 10 and are increasingly taking advantage of global value chains to access foreign markets, increase productivity and mitigate risk.
Footnote 11 Due to the preponderance of SMEs in this sector, the cleantech sector does not benefit from the economies of scale that would facilitate the commercialization of the solutions proposed. While these Canadian firms are inherently innovative and many hold proprietary technologies, their size sometimes proves to be an impediment to accessing the funding required for the commercialization of their novel technologies. The Chinese Sector Since the beginning of its 11th Five Year PlanChina has vigorously promoted energy and resource conservation, emission reductions and the development of a resource saving and environment-friendly society.
The industry consists of over 12, environmental services enterprises, research institutes and organizations, concentrated mainly in the coastal provinces and in the more economically developed areas along the Yangtze River and in the central region. China is steadily increasing its engineering capacity in hydropower dam construction and has advanced its domestic hydroelectricity generation component manufacturing. The environmental degradation mitigation industry continues to expand in terms of both technological refinement and product variety.
China has been able to independently design and construct large-scale urban sewage treatment plants, waste incineration power plants and large-scale thermal power plant flue gas desulphurization facilities. The environmental services sector has gone from offering mere technical services to the capacity to deliver a comprehensive range of services, including decision making, management, investment and financing, general contracting and operations.
Expansion has been notable in the urban sewage and garbage disposal subsectors. The United States Secretary of State said that "not a single point of controversy exists between the two countries calling for adjustment; and that their commercial intercourse, based upon treaty stipulations, is conducted upon those liberal and enlightened principles of reciprocity In the German commissioner for the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia stated that the German armaments, machines, arts, and crafts on display were of inferior quality to British and American products.
Germany industrialized rapidly after unification under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in —, but its competition was more with Britain than with the U. It bought increasing amounts of American farm products, especially cotton, wheat and tobacco, but tried to block American meat.GERMANY or CANADA - Which Country is Better?
They came into conflict in the s; inthe islands were divided between the United States and Germany. The United States later took full control in after the outbreak of the First World War, while the Americans were neutral.
German interest in the Caribbean In the late 19th centurythe German Imperial Navy Kaiserliche Marine sought to establish a coaling station somewhere in the Caribbean Sea area. Imperial Germany was rapidly building a world-class navy but coal burning warships needed frequent refueling and could only operate within range of a coaling station.
Preliminary plans were vetoed by Chancellor von Bismarck, who did not want to antagonize the U. They were even more concerned with the possible American canal at Panama in Central Americaas it would lead to full American hegemony in the Caribbean.
The stakes were laid out in the German war aims proposed by the Navy two decades before "The Great War" in Germany intended to land troops and occupy Venezuelan ports, but U. President Theodore Roosevelt — forced the Germans to back down by sending his own fleet and threatening war if the Germans landed. They dropped that plan, but it became active again afterthe start of the Mexican Revolution and subsequent Mexican Civil War.
Germany intended to land troops and occupy Venezuelan ports, but President Theodore Roosevelt forced the Germans to back down by sending his own fleet and threatening war if the Germans landed. The media highlighted his militarism and belligerent speeches and imperialistic goals. At the same time, the British were becoming increasingly friendly toward the United States in world affairs.
American opinion became more negative toward Germany than towards any other country in Europe. President Wilson's highest priority was to broker peace talks, using his trusted aide Colonel House. Apart from an Anglophile element urging early support for Britain, American public opinion reflected that of the president: Wilson insisted on neutrality, and minimized wartime preparations in order to negotiate for peace.
After the British ship Lusitania was sunk with over American passengers drowned, Wilson demanded that German submarines must allow passengers and crew to reach their lifeboats. Germany reluctantly agreed, but in January decided that a massive infantry attack on the Western front, coupled with a full-scale attack on all food shipments to Europe, would prove decisive.
It realized the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare meant war with the United States, but it calculated that American military forces would take years to arrive, by which time Germany would already be the victor. Germany reached out to Mexico with the Zimmermann Telegramoffering a military alliance against the United States, hoping the United States would diverge most of its attention to attacking Mexico.
London intercepted the Zimmerman telegram, and it outraged American opinion. The United States expected to provide money, munitions, food and raw materials but did not expect to send large troop contingents until Washington realized how weak the Allies were on the Western Front.
After the exit of Russia from the war in lateGermany could reallocateexperienced troops to their Western Front. On the homefront, the loyalty of German-Americans were frequently challenged.
China–United States relations
Any significant German cultural impact was seen with intense hostility and suspicion. Germany was portrayed as a threat to American freedom and way of life.
Inside Germany, the United States was another enemy and denounced as a false liberator, wanting to dominate Europe itself. As the war ended, however, the German people embraced Wilsonian promises of the just peace treaty.
At the Paris peace conference ofPresident Wilson used his enormous prestige, and cooperation with the British Prime Minister David Lloyd Georgeto successfully block some of the extremely harsh French demands against Germany.
Wilson devoted most of his attention to establishing the League of Nationswhich he felt would end all wars. He also signed a treaty with France and Britain the guaranteed American support and Germany invaded France again.
Returning home, Wilson re. The United States government rejected the harsh anti-German Versailles Treaty ofand signed a new peace treaty that involved no punishment for Germany, and worked with Britain to create a viable Euro-Atlantic peace system.
Houghton —25 believed that world peace, European stability, and American prosperity depended upon a reconstruction of Europe's economy and political systems. He saw his role as promoting American political engagement with Europe. He overcame domestic opposition, and disinterest in Washington.