[Environment and development].
Environment and Development - 1st Edition - ISBN: , . as well as the relationship between the environment and development. support the analysis and explain the issues presented; Includes case studies. PIP: This work discusses elements of the emerging debate over the relationship between the condition of the environment and development and identifies. Some university courses offer modules on the relationship between the environment and development, and some institutions offer entire.
The two terms have traditionally intersected in developing areas where one or more natural resources have been utilized to promote economic growth. This intersection has been extended in the recent literature to include not only the impact of development on environment but also human perceptions of environment in the development process and the role of non-human actors in development. General Overviews There are many ways to approach environment and development; however the texts below are representative of truly integrative approaches to the field.
Each one remains at a level of abstraction that allows its lessons to be applied broadly. Bartlemus is a good starting point as the text is general and accessible. Students would be especially encouraged to start with that text.
Development studies: Suggested reads on environment and development
Moseley and Logan is a good starting point for anyone interested in environment-development in Africa. Environment and Sustainability in a Developing World. This is a key introductory text that guides readers through a range of issues from sustainability to development. It is a critical inquiry into the environment-development nexus. Allen and Unwin, Sustainable Livelihoods, Environment and Development: Putting Poor Rural People First.
The conflict between economic growth and environment is sharper today than ever before, particularly in developing countries like India with fast growing population and mass poverty.
The developing countries are making strenuous efforts to balance their need for rapid economic growth with the environmental concerns for keeping their natural base intact. In India, as in other developing countries, the adoption of development strategy based primarily on large-scale industrialisation, energy-intensive technologies and biochemical-based agricultural technology, ignoring indigenous development paradigm based on locally self-sufficient technologies, has led to environmental degradation.
In this article, we shall explain various environmental issues and the adverse impact of climate change and explain the need for sustainable development.
He urged upon the State governments to control environment pollution, clean rivers and fight climate change.
Relationship Between Environment and Economic Growth
This shows that we have not been taking adequate efforts to ensure sustainable development. To stop further decline in our natural resources and protect environment from pollution stringent regulations and incentives are needed.
But, as the PM has said, due to rampant corruption prevailing in the bureaucracy the rules regarding the use of our natural resources and protection of environment have been flouted with impunity. There are numerous instances when the Ministry of Environment and Forests has flouted all norms to give clearance to dubious projects at the cost of environment and communities that depend on it. This is because increasing population causes environmental degradation. Increases in population cause over-exploitation of natural resources such as forests, water, fisheries and minerals at a rate far greater than their capacity to regenerate.
Besides, population pressure on land compels us to cultivate arable land more intensively by using chemical inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides which cause soil degradation. Further, increase in population through its effect on deforestation by the rural and urban population for timber and fuel leads to the increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and therefore causes air pollution.
Thus the population impacts on environment primarily through the use and depletion of natural resources and is associated with environmental problems such as air and water pollution and loss of biodiversity and increased pressure on arable land. As an example of estimate of loss, Tata Energy Research Institute TERI estimates that economic losses due to soil degradation, diseases caused by pollution and forest degradation is between Rs.
Populations increases cause over-exploitation of land and water resources and loss of biodiversity and forests and will therefore endanger sustainability of agriculture and food security in the country.
According to Prof MS. It is manifest from above that rapidly increasing population in developing countries will lead to the over-exploitation and degradation of land and depletion of fisheries which will threaten the achievement of food security in the developing countries. Besides, the growth of urban population in the absence of adequate infrastructure facilities has caused the lack of clean water to drink and given rise to slums with the poor sanitation which has increased the vulnerability of the people to several diseases.
It follows from above that to meet the expanding needs of the developing countries, environment degradation must be halted. For that purpose, reduction in population growth will greatly help in easing the intensification of many environmental problems.
Poverty in developing countries is also said to be responsible for environmental degradation. Poor people rely on natural resources more than the rich. For survival the rural poor are forced to cut forests for timber and fuel as well as graze animals on pasture lands more than the reproductive capacity of these natural resources.
Besides, when the cultivable land becomes short relative to population, the poor are forced to make their subsistence by cultivating fragile land on hills and mountains resulting in soil erosion on a large scale. It is in such environment that poverty becomes a vicious circle. Poverty leads to land degradation and land degradation accelerates the process of impoverishment because the poor people depend directly on exploitation of natural resources on which property rights are not properly assigned.
Thus, though a large number of poor people earn a good deal of their livelihood from the un-marketed natural resources such as common grazing lands, forests from where food, fuel and building materials are gathered by them, the degradation and loss of such resources may harm the poor and result in perpetuation of their poverty. Thus, as mentioned above, in the use of natural resources by the poor, the vicious circle of poverty operates. It is important to note that the poorest in our society will suffer most if we use our resources unsustainably as their lives and livelihood depend very directly on water, land, seas and forests.
This requires sound environment policies which attempt to conserve the natural resources and help the poor to use them properly so that forest cover is not destroyed, land is not degraded through soil erosion and its fertility is maintained. With growing population the poor encroach upon large remote areas of forests and grasslands to make their livelihood.
- [Environment and development].
- Relationship Between Environment and Economic Growth
If there are strict regulations to prevent such encroachment, it is opposed with stiff resistance by the poor, especially in the tribal areas. The solution to the poverty problem of these teeming millions lies in land reforms, generation of more employment opportunities and improvement in productivity of arable land already in use, for example, shifting the poor from poor resource-based to modern science-based agriculture.
This is what has been sought to be achieved through green revolution technology.
Suggested reads: Environment and development | Global development | The Guardian
However, the green revolution has also been criticised for environmental reasons, especially the use of fertilizers and pesticides that increase soil salinity. Besides, ample use of irrigation in green revolution technology without adequate drainage facilities results in soil degradation through salinity and water logging.
Adequate and appropriate steps should be taken to make the green revolution technology clean and environment-friendly. There can be no two opinions that major efforts must be made to overcome these defects through development of less poisonous chemicals, pest and insect control with reduced chemical application and improved drainage facilities.