MARCO POLO AND KUBLAI KHAN | Facts and Details
According to Charles Beazley, the description of the East in The Polo's relationship with the Great Khan seems so close that he almost. Presenting the pope with the letter from Kublai Khan proved impossible for the Marco Polo later describes Tabriz as “a great city surrounded by beautiful and. Polo, Marco; Kublai KhanMarco Polo, his uncle, and his father presenting the pope's letter With a few outstanding exceptions, such as Kublai himself (whom the Mongols . Ögödei's short-lived capital, but set up his own capital at what is now Beijing, a city . In Hōjō Family: Relationship with the court and the aristocracy.
- Kublai Khan
- MARCO POLO AND KUBLAI KHAN
- Marco Polo and his travels
He was captured during a naval battle and ended up in prison in Genoa. By chance, one of his cellmates, Rusticello from Pisa, had experience writing romantic novels.
As Polo entertained everyone with his tales of traveling to China, Rusticello wrote them down in a French dialect.
The couple had three daughters in quick succession. He spent his remaining days as a businessman, working from home. He died there at almost 70 years of age, on January 8,and was buried under the church of San Lorenzo, though his tomb has now vanished.
It could be circulated only one copy at a time, since printing in Europe did not begin until almost years later. About to early manuscripts — hand-printed and fragmentary versions of The Travels — survive, and every one of them is different.
The earliest readers were scholars, monks, and noblemen.
It took more than a century for the book to become part of mainstream European consciousness. Few texts have provoked more controversy than The Travels of Marco Polo. The authorship is not clear — is it Polo or Rusticello? Sometimes the text is in the first-person voice, sometimes in the third-person.
Polo proved an engaging storyteller. He found Mongolian customs fascinating and reported them enthusiastically, such as the use of paper for money and the burning of coal for heat see excerpts below. Paper money had been utilized in China for several hundred years, and coal had been burned in parts of China since the beginning of agriculture.
Polo also missed a few unfamiliar practices, notably the books being sold in Quinsa now Hangzhouthe capital city of the earlier Song dynasty in southern China. Books were widely available there because they were printed with moveable type made of wood, clay, or tin.
Moveable type was missing in Europe untilwhen Johannes Gutenberg, a German printer, invented it there. When Christopher Columbus set sail on August 3,hoping to find a route by sea to China, he carried with him a heavily annotated copy of The Travels of Marco Polo, expecting it to be useful. Latham works several texts together to make a readable whole. Polo related his memoirs orally to Rustichello da Pisa while both were prisoners of the Genova Republic.
Rustichello wrote Devisement du Monde in Langues d'Oila lingua franca of crusaders and western merchants in the Orient. A year later, they went to Ukek  and continued to Bukhara. There, an envoy from the Levant invited them to meet Kublai Khanwho had never met Europeans.
Kublai received the brothers with hospitality and asked them many questions regarding the European legal and political system. Kublai Khan requested that an envoy bring him back oil of the lamp in Jerusalem. They followed the suggestion of Theobald Visconti, then papal legate for the realm of Egyptand returned to Venice in or to await the nomination of the new Pope, which allowed Marco to see his father for the first time, at the age of fifteen or sixteen.
They sailed to Acreand then rode on camels to the Persian port of Hormuz. The Polos wanted to sail straight into China, but the ships there were not seaworthy, so they continued overland through the Silk Roaduntil reaching Kublai's summer palace in Shangdunear present-day Zhangjiakou.
In one instance during their trip, the Polos joined a caravan of travelling merchants whom they crossed paths with. Unfortunately, the party was soon attacked by banditswho used the cover of a sandstorm to ambush them. The Polos managed to fight and escape through a nearby town, but many members of the caravan were killed or enslaved.
It is possible that he became a government official;  he wrote about many imperial visits to China's southern and eastern provinces, the far south and Burma. They became worried about returning home safely, believing that if Kublai died, his enemies might turn against them because of their close involvement with the ruler. InKublai's great-nephew, then ruler of Persiasent representatives to China in search of a potential wife, and they asked the Polos to accompany them, so they were permitted to return to Persia with the wedding party—which left that same year from Zaitun in southern China on a fleet of 14 junks.
The roof is also made of canes, so varnished that it is quite waterproof. This is the greatest palace that ever was.
The roof is very lofty, and the walls of the palace are all covered with gold and silver. The hall is so large that it could easily dine 6, people. The roof is vermilion, yellow, green and blue, the tiles fixed with a varnish so fine that they shine like crystal and can be seen from a great distance. Often, too, he enters the park with a leopard on the crupper of his horse; when he feels inclined, he lets it go and thus catches a hare or stag or roebuck to give to the gyrfalcons that he keeps in the mew.
And this he does for recreation and sport. When the 28th day of August arrives, he takes his departure, and the Cane Palace is taken to pieces It is held in place by more than chains of silk. Coleridge later wrote, "During three hours of profound sleep, he composes lines of poetry.
After he woke up he wrote down the 54 lines of Kubla Khan when he was interrupted by a visitor. When he returned to his desk he could no longer remember his dream poem. And all should cry Beware! His flashing eyes, his floating hair! Weave a circle round him thrice, And close your eyes with holy dread, For he on honey-dew hath fed, And drunk the milk of Paradise Marco Polo as Kublai Khan's Envoy Kublai Khan welcomed the Polos like long lost friends.
He used Marco Polo as an emissary and ambassador in China and in other Asian kingdoms. This was not that unusual. Kublai Khan employed thousands of foreigners, mostly Persians and Arabs. Scholars deduce that Marco Polo could speak Persian and Mongol but not much Chinese he often used Persian names rather than Chinese ones for the places he described and spent much of his time with foreigners.
Marco Polo in China ()
Marco Polo didn't mention what his father and uncle did. It seems probable that they worked as merchants. He served at the Khan's court and was sent on a number of special missions in China, Burma and India.
Many places which Marco saw were not seen again by Europeans until last century.
Kublai Khan appointed Marco Polo as an official of the Privy Council in and for 3 years he was a tax inspector in Yanzhou, a city on the Grand Canal, northeast of Nanking. He also visited Karakorum and part of Siberia. Meanwhile his father and uncle took part in the assault on the town of Siang Yang Fou, for which they designed and constructed siege engines.Wait For avesisland.info Mongols!: Crash Course World History #17
He frequently visited Hangzhou, another city very near Yangzhou. At one time Hangzhou was the capital of the Song dynasty and had a beautiful lakes and many canals, like Marco's hometown, Venice.
Marco fell in love with it.