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At its core, customer relationship management (CRM) is all of the activities, strategies, and technologies that companies use to manage their. Literature review Customer relationship management in hotels CRM is de ned .. not exceed , and each factor related more strongly to its own (Hair et al., ) .. of organisational culture and effectiveness”, Organisation Science, Vol . .. management research in tourism and hospitality: a state-of-the-art”, Tourism . Customer Relationship Management Scale (CRMS) was developed and vali- . synthesis of the state of the art concerning the construct and also a synthesis . the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPPS) software for further analysis. . explained of the construct (Hair, Black, Babi, Anderson, & Tatham, ).
Having in mind that maintaining and improving relations with donors is necessary for survival and development of NPOs, ensuring their long-term and increasing support is an imperative.
Therefore it can be easily concluded that the most of the marketing efforts should be directed to maintaining and improving relations with existing dedicated donors, simultaneously trying to include non-dedicated and the donors from transitional group, into the first one.
Practice shows that the donors themselves prefer that kind of relations. According to the results of a research about financing non-profit organizations from the EU and Swiss funds Krol and Fine As for donors that fund non-profit organizations in Serbia, it should be mentioned that Ministries, domestic funds and funds managed by the European Commission Youth in Action, Neighbourhood Programme do not have rigid rules of this type, and can finance project and programmes of the same organizations in more successive periods.
Some of the funds, such as the World Bank fund for small NGOs, BCIF and others, do not tend to finance the same organization or even two organizations from the same town or even part of the country twice in a roll or ever.
Some of the big international funds, such as International Youth Foundation, rarely finance two projects from the same region in two successive periods of time. On the other hand, US funds as MOTT and Rockefeller funds use to give three years long institutional support that can even be prolonged after that period. At the same time, we can see this as a significant opportunity for ensuring necessary regular cash flow for the non-profit organizations.
In fact, as most of the NGOs in Serbia are being financed through short-term, project financing, their common work on improving image of non-profit sector in general, and defining and implementing individual strategies of positioning is necessary. Contemporary relationship marketing trends also develop the need for managing relations with unsatisfied consumers, in this case — the donors.
Namely, the aim is to determine how valuable they were, how much potential resources was lost, is there a chance for reactivation of some of those donors, which way and how much it will cost. Based on all that information, the strategies of re-attracting lost donors are being defined and implemented. In the following text it will be explained how successful previous activities and, generally, good reputation of NPOs ensure long-term commitment of existing donors and attracting new ones.
Acquainting with the donors The basic philosophy of CRM is developing mutually satisfying relationship with customers and therefore organization needs to understand what the customer wants from the relationship. Customer identification is the important point for CRM which can enable the firm for making its customers more loyal through the collection, processing, and applying customer profile and transaction data.
This eventually results in providing the customer with the desired value that leads to loyalty.eCRM or electronic customer relationship management with Examples - Business Studies - Mathur Sir
As profit organizations tend to in managing relations with customers, non-profit organizations have to set as a goal understanding of each donor. When it comes to individual donors, most of them invest in order to support a cause and see the positive change in its achievement, and not only to improve financial state of an organization. Namely, people usually invest in causes that are accordant with their deep personal beliefs and values.
Some of the methods that can be used are telephone interviews, mailing and focus groups. In the case of small budgets, which are almost a rule, secondary data retrieved from the sources as annual reports of other organizations or media, or through the network of partners Krol and Fine Associates, friends or collaborators from other organizations, employees of financial institutions and business organizations, potential volunteers, partners and donors — they all represent interconnected subjects of these networks.
Spiller and Baier According to this model, two groups of determinants that influence behaviour and decision making of an individual donor can be identified. Those determinants, in the model called external and internal, actually represent demographic and psychographic characteristics of individual donors that help in acquainting them.
Demographic characteristics of donors as gender, age, education level, place of residency etc. Mentioned authors Spiller and Baier This kind of research has not been organized in Serbia yet.
Previous experience and personal evaluation are the criteria of significant influence, but as they represent intrinsic determinants direct marketers can not easily identify them. However, as much possible information should be collected about the projects and organizations that the donors have supported so far and their fields of interest and operating.
Still, these authors Spiller and Baier That conclusion is supported by the results of other researches. Namely, Suzan Foreman Ultimately, this leads to the satisfying degree of loyalty.
Creating and communicating the personalized value Customer relationship management is a customer-centred business strategy aimed at increasing satisfaction and loyalty of customers by offering them tailored services. In this very phase of CRM that personalized value for customers is being created. In the donor relationship management, the organizations' environment not only evaluates the services provided by the organization, but also the norms and values these services are being produced from.
Such service is possible only if there is a feedback system in place that encourages communication with the customers. In order for the CRM strategy to be successful, it is important that the customer information flow freely through the organization with a streamlined operational system that facilitates effective interaction and information sharing across the different channels.
The instruments and techniques of direct marketing are therefore considered to be ideal for non-profit organizations as they are precisely oriented, their activities are costly effective, costs can be presented in accounting statements, and the results of the efforts are directly measureable as they demand direct response. NPOs can use different direct marketing strategies that employ different means of communication.
Researches show that the most used source of information for donors about possibilities for funding non-profit organization is the direct mail. Most frequently used form of the direct mail is in fact the mailing related to charities and projects of the NPOs. ECHO prize established in US represents the acknowledgement that American Direct Marketing Association DMA gives annually to the direct marketing experts for direct and interactive campaigns promoting aims of the non-profit organizations.
Direct mail is used for fundraising, building and improving relationships with donors, updating them and enabling their long-term support.
THE ART AND SCIENCE OF OPENING A HOTEL Hotel Management and Operations
In Serbia, as in other countries, direct mail is the most frequently used tool of direct marketing in non-profit organizations. The biggest amount of this kind of mailings is sent to the largest number of citizens by non-governmental organizations during the so called GOTV Go out and take a vote campaigns and by political parties before and during the election Session 6.
Direct mail is, also, used by charity organizations and other citizens associations, but the message is directed to specifically targeted segments of potential donors and users, promoting concrete program or project. Television can be used in fundraising campaigns through advertising or the public announcement. In Serbia, most of the non-profit organizations do not have possibility for this kind of promotion since they have limited budgets. On the other hand, this kind of promoting projects, charity actions and non-profit organizations is being used when TV stations are project partners or general media supporters.
Television advertising is used for promoting private charity funds of the celebrities.
The Internet is becoming the most important media generally and for non-profit organizations also. The use of the Internet rises as the postal costs increase, usage of paper is becoming highly expensive and its extensive use judged by the public, and telemarketing regulation becomes even more complex.
As generally available, frequently used and interactive promotional mean with constantly rising popularity and usage, the Internet represents the tool for information gathering and fundraising for non-profit organizations. With this tool, non-profit organizations get the new possibility for fundraising thanks to numerous on-line marketing initiatives that consist of data bases of potential donors — names of organizations in alphabetical order for on-line fundraising.
E-mails, as Keller E-bulletin is a common way of on-line communication, that potential donor or partner gets on request, which differentiates it from spam. It has to include basic information and directions for sources where donors can find detailed information, in order to adequately meet their needs. The presence on the Internet is not itself enough for fundraising nor for communication with all the interested stakeholders.
Service website represent a website where all the data are being regularly updated, daily information are presented in a way familiar to the donors, with other added values for them, with possibility for interaction, even personalization.
High quality service website need to present communication flow with user in details, from preparation of content in organization to the eventual money transfers.
Among Serbian NPOs, web presentations are mostly used as a way of promoting organization, for attracting potential volunteers and as an additional source of information for donors. Internet is also used for reviewing potential donors date bases in Serbia, this information can be found at websites of CRNPS — Centre for non-profit sector development, PRSP — Poverty reduction strategy paper, Ministry of youth and sport…finding potential users, ideas for future projects and information about potential donors which are the projects they have financed till now, priorities in financing, what are donors strategic goals and so on.
It is necessary to mention the potential flaws of communication via Internet while managing relationship with donors. The most important of them are: On the other hand, direct mail and telemarketing make the donor face the organization and its appeal, so the reaction is more possible. Developing and managing long-term relationships In the concept of relationship marketing, according to Kotler and Adams These authors consider relationship marketing easier and more cost-effective than traditional transactional marketing that makes it very suitable for non-profit organizations.
As stakeholders who have already carried out transaction with the organization are considered to be better sources for future transactions than the entirely new ones, marketing efforts should be directed to the promotion of further interactions with their existing target audience base.
Although establishment and development of strong long-term relationships instead of irregular transactions is important in many areas of non-profit marketing, it is even necessary in managing relationship with donors. Namely, apart from attracting donors, the organization has to additionally improve its ability to retain them for a longer period of time. A successfully implemented CRM concept, if it is based on a clearly defined strategy, can lead to the achievement of that goal.
As Kristoffersen and Singh The final objective is to build strong relations that encourage donors to interact with the organization longer, invest more in it and recommend it to others.
Relationship marketing is based on focusing on key target audience members and giving them continuous attention. The first commandment of developing good relationship with donors is showing gratitude or giving something in return.
Those activities should also be personalized, and donors usually choose some of the following types of showing gratitude: Managing relations with donors, certainly, does not include only showing gratitude but a whole additional set of activities.
Although regular contacting from time to time aimed at giving donors small rewards for patronage, asking them for new ways they can be of help — may seem costly in the short run, these small gestures of nurturing can have important effects on the target audience member in the long run.
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Interview questions for client relationship management jobs - IrishJobs Career Advice
Louis, each project has been unique, each project has been the same, and each has been professionally rewarding. The OPM is the third person hired, after the general manager and the director of marketing. The role of an OPM is to pull together the visions of the architect, interior designer, owner, operator, and others.
When these visions are successfully melded, the hotel guest is satisfied, the owner makes money, and the architect and interior designer can add the project to their list of successful accomplishments. The OPM oversees the following aspects of a project: Are ample electrical and telecom outlets placed exactly where the TV, lamps, clock radio, mini-bar, coffeemaker, hair dryer, Internet access, and telephones are located so the cords are hidden? Are spare outlets offered for guest use computer, iron, etc.
Is the closet rod hung so the ironing board organizer and iron board fit in the closet? Is the thermostat location convenient for guest access? Are the case goods dresser, nightstands, headboards, chairs, etc. Will they hold up to abusive use?
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Do they have sharp corners that will snag guest clothing? Do the bedside lamps give off enough lumens so guests can read in bed? Does the room meet or exceed every operator brand standard?
These model rooms serve as sales tools for the sales and marketing staff selling group rooms up to three years before opening.
Once the titles and staff counts by position are finalized, then spreadsheets are created to include the position titles, start dates, pay rates, bonus, transfer allowances, and number of full-time equivalents FTEs for all positions.
The pre-opening staff plan is a comprehensive document that states who is hired, when they start, how much they are paid, and whether or not they are allocated a relocation allowance and benefit costs. Each of these pieces is used to build the pre-opening staff plan budget. If hiring has already begun and the opening date changes, the budget must be amended. Hiring a position that does not conform to the plan, such as bringing on a renowned chef one month earlier than planned, also requires the budget be modified.
This budget typically consists of three major categories; labor cost 40 percentsales and marketing efforts 40 percentand miscellaneous 20 percent. The labor cost is taken directly from the pre-opening staff plan. Sales and marketing activities comprise advertising, collateral, public relations, and travel to see clients. Rounding out the budget are all of the miscellaneous items.
These include office space rental before moving into the hotel, utilities power, water, Internet, and telephonehuman resources recruitment ads, headhunters, drug testing, etc.
If the hotel opening date is delayed for any reason, the pre-opening budget is affected. Additional costs include labor, office rent, utilities, and marketing efforts. If the opening date changes within three weeks of the original plan, major costs are encountered, as most of the staff is already hired.
The list of goods typically exceeds 2, line items. Add a little more for a full-service resort; deduct a little for an in-city business hotel. Typical guest room items include bedding frames, box springs, mattresses, mattress pads, sheets, pillows, pillowcases, towels, etc. Housekeeping equipment includes vacuums guest room and wide-area unitscarpet shampooers, carpet extractors, housekeeper carts, laundry bins, garbage trucks, valet delivery carts, and shelving, to name a few of any items.
Housekeeping must also keep an inventory of guest request items including humidifiers, dehumidifiers, cribs, high chairs, rollaway beds, bed boards, spare pillows, towels, amenities, refrigerators, laundry soap, and so on. Food and beverage front-of-the-house items include flatware knives, forks, and spoonshollowware serving trays, serving utensils, chafing dishes, sugar bowls and sauce boats, punch bowlsglassware, table linen, napkins, skirting, salt and pepper shakers, china, plate covers, espresso machines, menu covers and the list goes on and on.
Banquet items include all of the above plus tables, chairs, staging, staging steps and railings, dance floors, carts, carving boards, ice carving trays, flags, podiums, portable bars, ice bins, pianos, and tray jack stands. The largest purchase order—typically over pages long—is for a full-service kitchen and includes everything a chef needs to produce the menus being sold at the hotel. Every utensil, pot, pan, dish, and glass rack, ware washing chemicals, mops and buckets, specialty items roller-docker, anyone?
One of the largest and most complicated purchase orders is for staff uniforms. My recent Kona, Hawaii, project uniform purchase order was 68 pages long. The invoices covered over pages Before quantifying uniform needs, many questions are asked. Do we need summer and winter uniforms? Will the uniforms be laundered by the hotel or the hotel associates? How many extra servers are needed for a capacity dinner function in the ballrooms? Is the intent to have a large percentage of part time staff?
Which uniforms need custom embroidery restaurants, culinary, engineering, etc.
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What percentage of spare uniforms are needed in reserve? Once these questions are answered, then the selection process begins. Operations and the interior designer review the look and feel the options available. Each position housekeeper, bell person, etc. Housekeepers and bell persons require durable uniforms that breathe and can handle lots of bending and stretching. The uniforms of the culinary and engineering staffs are often stained and must hold up to numerous launderings.