Zooplankton and phytoplankton relationship with god

zooplankton and phytoplankton relationship with god

Scientists have unveiled the most comprehensive analysis ever undertaken of the world's ocean plankton, tiny organisms that serve as food. The tiny organisms that travel along the ocean currents and drift along in bodies of fresh water are known as plankton, which comes from a. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Zooplankton diversity and its relationship with and diversity of phytoplankton and zooplankton with physico-chemical factor with and chemical parameters on the extinction of the god fish (Tor duoronensis).

The photosynthetic phytoplankton grows in the upper sunlight layer of water bodies. The chemosynthetic phytoplankton can be found in deep sections of the water body where no sunlight can pass through. Phytoplankton The two major types of phytoplankton are diatoms and dinoflagellates.

The shape of a diatom can be a sphere, ellipse or star. The significance of the diatoms is the silica shell, which serves as the cell wall of diatoms. Most dinoflagellates comprise a pair of flagella for the movement. Moreover, the oils in the body of both diatoms and dinoflagellates help the movement through water.

The high growth rates of diatoms and dinoflagellates cause algae blooms.

zooplankton and phytoplankton relationship with god

The red tide is a type of a marine algae bloom which produces biotoxins. These biotoxins can harm small fish. What is Zooplankton A zooplankton is a common name for many microscopic animal forms, which can be found in both fresh and marine water habitats.

Zooplankton Vs. Phytoplankton | Sciencing

Zooplankton drift or float in the middle layer of water bodies. The zooplankton is a heterotrophic organism that consumes phytoplankton, another zooplankton or detritus. Therefore, zooplankton can be a primary or secondary consumer of an aquatic food chain. Several Types of Zooplankton The two major types of zooplankton are holoplankton or meroplankton.

Holoplankton remains as a plankton throughout its lifecycle while meroplankton is a larval stage of another life form. Copepods are another type of zooplankton.

For Keratella cochlearis cochlearis and Bosmina longirostris temperature was already considered in the formula given for clearance rate Bogdan and Gilbert, Statistical analyses on differences in plankton biomass and grazing activity between the three different hydrological situations H, M and L were tested with the Kruskal— Wallis test. Pairwise tests were done using the Mann— Whitney U test. Herbivorous grazing activity was calculated as the ratio of consumed algal carbon per total metazooplankton biomass.

For analyses of correlation between relative grazing rates and water age at Regelsbrunn we applied polynomial functions to the first and to the second order.

Significance was tested by analysis of variance.

zooplankton and phytoplankton relationship with god

Grazing rates Seasonal variation in relative community grazing rates of the total phytoplankton biomass turned out to be generally negligible at the dynamic site Figure 2B. The main grazers were Synchaeta oblonga and S. The highest consumption rates were recorded at intermediate connectivity Table III for all types of grazers.

Maximal consumption rates, dominated by B. Mainly Polyarthra vulgaris and P. In maximal relative grazing rates on distinct algal sizes we found a succession from rotifers to crustaceans with increasing water age.

The highest theoretical daily removal potential was that by B. Large bodied cladocerans and copepods had maximal impacts even at high water age. The relationship between grazing impact and water age showed an increasing linear trend for copepods and a unimodal trend for rotifers and cladocerans Figure 4.

Rates never reached those of rotifers or cladocerans. No relationship was found for total phytoplankton biomass and water age Figure 4D. However, peaks in grazing impact corresponded with low values of standing stock.

zooplankton and phytoplankton relationship with god

High carbon consumption figures at intermediate water ages are primarily produced by an abundance of nauplii and young copepodite stages.

The Kruskal—Wallis test revealed significant differences between intermediate and the other hydrological situations, for all categories. Herbivory, expressed as a ratio of algal consumption to zooplankton biomass, showed higher values in dynamic conditions high and intermediate connectivity Figure 6.

The limiting effect of flowing water on population development is clearly demonstrated, e. Consequently, its ecological contribution to carbon dynamics is negligible under hydrologically dynamic conditions. Considerable grazing impact takes place with increasing residence time of the water, peaking at intermediate ages of the water 17 days Figure 4. The observed zooplankton communities in these lakes show a similar species composition to those we observed, with dominance of rotifers and Bosminidae.

Along the gradient of water age, the grazing pressure on phytoplankton changes with various grazer categories Figure 4.

Rotifers reach their maximal grazing pressure at a water age of 10 days. They profit by their fast reproduction cycle which allows fast colonization. Comparable high rotifer abundances have been observed in summer during low discharge periods in slow flowing lowland rivers Viroux, ; Kobayashi et al. Additionally, rotifers have proved to be less susceptible to suspended sediment than cladocerans Kirk and Gilbert, This implies that rotifers are at an advantage in riverine situations with high loads of suspended solids.

Difference Between Phytoplankton and Zooplankton

Cladocerans show maximum grazing activity at a water age of 17 days and replace rotifers in grazing dominance. Herbivory by copepods, on the other hand, increases continuously with water age, but never reaches grazing rates comparable with those of rotifers and cladocerans.

This observation implies a functional succession in the grazing impact of various taxonomic groups in dynamic floodplains, with highest impact by cladocerans, which can lead to a total depletion of available algae. At high water age top—down interactions start to control primary producers.

Finally, the complexity of planktonic interactions is increased by the addition of omnivory and bacterivory, adult copepods and some cladocerans. The grazing pressure on algae decreases. Biotic interactions control abundance and prevent the high population densities observed during the early period of succession. A relatively stable plankton community, characterized by lower fluctuations in grazing potential, becomes established. Despite the high species diversity of floodplain zooplankton Baranyi et al.

Therefore, just as how humans will greatly be affected if the atmosphere is polluted with noxious gases, so also all aquatic life if their environment which is water is polluted with effluents. The quality of water is, therefore, germane to the survival and well-being of all aquatic life in the ecosystem.

According to Lohdip, [4] water quality is a complex subject which involves physical, chemical, hydrological, and biological characteristics of water and their complex delicate relations. The plankton phytoplankton and zooplankton are the primary and secondary producers in an aquatic ecosystem and represent the biological parameters mostly measured when assessing water quality. As they phytoplankton are dependent on water quality parameters, especially nitrates and phosphates for optimum growth, reproduction, and survival, so also are all consumer aquatic life zooplankton, aquatic invertebrates, fish larvae, etc.

Any unfavorable change in physicochemical parameters could affect plankton yield, i.

Collecting plankton

This possibility necessitates the continuous monitoring of water quality to protect aquatic life. According to Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment CCME[5] the traditional practice of reporting water quality has been to produce reports describing trends and compliance with official guidelines or other objectives on a variable by variable basis.

The advantage of this approach is that it provides a wealth of data and information; however, in many cases, managers and the general public have neither the inclination nor the training to study these reports in detail. One possible solution to this problem is to reduce the multivariate nature of water quality data by employing an index that will mathematically combine all water quality measures and provide a general and readily understood description of water.

River Ogun is a free-to-all perennial river used without regulation for many domestic and industrial purposes and as a result is liable to pollution. Several studies have been carried out on the water quality of the river including Diayi and Gbadebo, [6] who carried out pollution assessment of sediment metals from the middle region of the Ogun River; Ojekunle et al. However, no study has specifically linked water quality to planktonic existence.

This study is, therefore, aimed at: Mean annual rainfall ranges from mm in the north to mm toward the south.