The type-II error depends not only on alpha but also on many other things (e.g. the kind of test, the sample size, the effect size, ). The type-II error is usually not . You can also use this type of trust relationship between an Active Directory . See Chapter 2, "Planning and Implementing an Active Directory . Figure If the trust cannot be validated, an error message such as this. hypothesis that a relationship does not exist). Type 2 errors are the reverse: a null . trust in climate scientists, though these were largely.
Examples of type II errors would be a blood test failing to detect the disease it was designed to detect, in a patient who really has the disease; a fire breaking out and the fire alarm does not ring; or a clinical trial of a medical treatment failing to show that the treatment works when really it does. Thus a type I error is a false positive, and a type II error is a false negative. When comparing two means, concluding the means were different when in reality they were not different would be a Type I error; concluding the means were not different when in reality they were different would be a Type II error.
Various extensions have been suggested as " Type III errors ", though none have wide use. In practice, the difference between a false positive and false negative is usually not obvious, since all statistical hypothesis tests have a probability of making type I and type II errors.
These error rates are traded off against each other: For a given test, the only way to reduce both error rates is to increase the sample size, and this may not be feasible.
A test statistic is robust if the Type I error rate is controlled. These terms are also used in a more general way by social scientists and others to refer to flaws in reasoning.
Type I and type II errors
Statistical test theory[ edit ] In statistical test theory, the notion of statistical error is an integral part of hypothesis testing. The test requires an unambiguous statement of a null hypothesis, which usually corresponds to a default "state of nature", for example "this person is healthy", "this accused is not guilty" or "this product is not broken".
An alternative hypothesis is the negation of null hypothesis, for example, "this person is not healthy", "this accused is guilty" or "this product is broken".
The result of the test may be negative, relative to the null hypothesis not healthy, guilty, broken or positive healthy, not guilty, not broken.
If the result of the test corresponds with reality, then a correct decision has been made. The Sides of Trust page, shown in Figure 3. Otherwise, select This Domain Only and then click Next. You must specify the same password when creating the trust in the other domain. Type and confirm a password that conforms to password security guidelines, click Next, and then skip to step Ensure that you remember this password.
Domain-Wide Authentication This option authenticates users from the trusted domain for all resources in the local domain. Microsoft recommends this option only for trusts within the same organization. Selective Authentication This option does not create any default authentication.Fix: Trust relationship between this workstation and primary domain `failed
You must grant access to each server that users need to access. Microsoft recommends this option for trusts that involve separate organizations, such as contractor relationships.
Select the appropriate type of authentication and then click Next. The Trust Selections Complete page displays a list of the options that you have configured see Figure 3. Review these settings to ensure that you have made the correct selections. If any settings are incorrect, click Back and correct them. The Trust Creation Complete page informs you that the trust relationship was successfully created.
Click Next to finish the process. The Confirm Outgoing Trust page asks whether you want to confirm the outgoing trust see Figure 3. If you have configured the trust from the other side, click Yes, Confirm the Outgoing Trust. The Confirm Incoming Trust page asks whether you want to confirm the incoming trust. Choices are the same as on the previous page. If you want to confirm this trust, enter a username and password for an administrator account in the other domain.
The Completing the New Trust Wizard page verifies the confirmation of the trust from the other side. You are returned to the Trusts tab of the domain's Properties dialog box see Figure 3.
The name of the domain with which you configured the trust now appears in one or both of the fields according to the trust type you created. Click OK to close this dialog box. Creating a Forest Trust Recall that this type of trust can be created only between two Active Directory forests that are both operating at the Windows Server forest functional level.
Follow Step by Step 3. Type the name of the forest root domain with which you want to create a trust and then click Next. On the Direction of Trust page, select the appropriate direction for the trust and then click Next. On the Sides of Trust page, specify whether you want to create the trust for this domain only or for both this domain and the specified domain, and then click Next.
If you are creating the trust for both forests, specify a username and password for the specified forest and then click Next. If you are creating the trust for this forest only, specify a trust password, which the administrator in the other forest will need to specify to complete the creation of the trust for her forest. Make a choice and then click Next. The Trust Selections Complete page displays a list of the options that you have configured refer to Figure 3.
The Confirm Outgoing Trust page asks whether you want to confirm the outgoing trust refer to Figure 3. If you want to confirm this trust, enter a username and password for an administrator account in the other forest.
You are returned to the Trusts tab of the domain's Properties dialog box refer to Figure 3. Creating a Shortcut Trust Recall that this type of trust can be created between child domains in the same forest to expedite crossdomain authentication or resource access. On the Direction of Trust page refer to Figure 3. If you are creating the trust for both domains, specify a username and password for an administrator account in the specified domain.
If you are creating the trust for this domain only, specify a trust password, which the administrator in the other domain will need to specify to complete the creation of the trust for her domain. The Trust Selections Complete page displays a summary of the settings you have entered refer to Figure 3. Click Back if you need to make any changes to these settings. Then click Next to create the trust. Click Next to configure the trust. The Confirm Outgoing Trust page asks whether you want to confirm the other side of the trust.
If you have created both sides of the trust, click Yes.
Type I and type II errors - Wikipedia
Otherwise, click No and then click Next. The Completing the New Trust Wizard page informs you that you have created the trust. Click Finish to return to the Trusts tab of the domain's Properties dialog box refer to Figure 3. If you have created only one side of the trust, an administrator in the other domain needs to repeat this procedure to create the trust from her end.
She will need to enter the trust password you specified in this procedure. Realizing that the research necessary to complete this project successfully required a high level of security, management asked the senior network administrator to set up a separate forest in the organization's Windows Server Active Directory design. For the project to succeed, researchers needed access to certain data stored in the organization's existing forest. Their user accounts would be in the new forest.
Users in the existing forest did not need to access data in the research forest. The administrator had to choose a trust model that would enable the appropriate levels of access. With these needs in mind, the administrator decided to implement a one-way external trust relationship in which the existing forest trusted the research forest. It was then possible to place the researchers who needed access into a group that could be granted access to the appropriate resources in the existing forest.
Because the trust relationship was one-way, no access in the opposite direction was possible. We take a further look at the use of groups to grant crossforest access in Chapter 6, "Implementing User, Computer, and Group Strategies. Validate trust relationships This option enables you to verify that a trust has been properly created and that the forests can communicate with each other.
Change the authentication scope This option enables you to change the selection of domainwide authentication or selective authentication that you made during creation of the trust, should you need to modify access control to the trusting forest's resources. Configure name suffix routing This option provides a mechanism that you can use to specify how authentication requests are routed across Windows Server forests. It is available only when forest trusts are used. Validating Trust Relationships To access the trust's Properties dialog box and validate a trust relationship, follow Step by Step 3.
On the Trusts tab of the domain's Properties dialog box, select the name of the other domain or forest and click Properties. This action displays the trust's Properties dialog box, as shown in Figure 3.
To validate the trust relationship, click Validate. If the trust is in place and active, you receive a confirmation message box, as shown in Figure 3.
Otherwise, you receive an error message, such as the one in Figure 3. Configuring Name Suffix Routing When you initially create a forest trust, all unique name suffixes are routed by default. For example, the DNS forest name quepublishing. Consequently, name suffixes in one forest do not exist in another forest.
Name suffix routing is a mechanism that can manage the routing of authentication requests across Windows Server forests that are connected by forest trust relationships. It enables name suffixes that do not exist in one forest to be used to route authentication requests to another forest.
This includes child name suffixes. As a result, when you view name suffixes in the Name Suffix Routing tab of the domain's Properties dialog box, as shown in Figure 3. If you add new child domains to either forest, they automatically inherit the name suffix routing properties of other domains in the forest.
After you add a new name suffix and validate the trust, it appears on the Name Suffixes tab with a status shown on the Routing column of Disabled. The Status column indicates New for a newly created name suffix. You may need to disable name suffix routing to prevent certain authentication requests from flowing across the forest trust.
You may also need to enable name suffix routing for additional name suffixes you have created or to exclude a child name suffix from routing.
The routing status in the Routing column changes. In the case of enabling a new name suffix routing, the New entry disappears from the Status column. To exclude a child name suffix from routing, select the parent suffix and click Edit to display the Edit domain name dialog box see Figure 3. To exclude the name suffix, click Add.
The excluded name suffix appears on the Edit domain name dialog box. In such situations, the Status column on the Name Suffix Routing tab lists the conflict in the indicated domain. You cannot enable this suffix for name routing until you have removed the conflicting name suffix for the indicated domain.
Removing a Crossforest Trust Relationship Sometimes you might need to remove a trust relationship between two forests. For example, a contract may have completed or been terminated, an acquisition of one company by another may have fallen through, and so on. You may need to remove and re-create a trust relationship if you have incorrectly specified properties such as an incorrect trust type or direction. On the Trusts tab of the domain's Properties dialog box, select the trust to be removed and click Remove.
You are asked whether you want to remove the trust from the local domain only or from the local domain and the other domain see Figure 3. If you want to remove the trust from both domains, select Yes, Remove the Trust from Both the Local Domain and the Other Domain, type the username and password for an account with administrative privileges in the other domain, and then click OK.