Keywords: physiology, performance, prediction, aerobic fitness, softball. Introduction. Softball is a and grip strength were significantly related to baseball-. The trend of negative relationships among the softball. players Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 11(4) Knapik, J. J. Nate Shaw, ATC, CSCS, Major League Strength and Conditioning and softball, a program's focus is on the length/tension relationship and.
Shoulders are crucial, but hips are close second. Our screening process over the last 5 years has revealed tight hip flexors and IT bands on a regular basis.
This is probably because of the rotational component in baseball. The Hip joint mirrors the shoulder—weak muscles are weak because tight muscles are tight. So, if one wants to increase the range of motion, or maybe correct an injury caused by this lack of range of motion, a few changes are required. If it is determined that the hip flexors need lengthening my recommend is to stretch the rectus femoris or quads agonist and strengthen the hip flexors or glutes antagonists.
We would approach this from two ways—stretch and strengthen. This way function can be restored to the system.
There is some debate about which is more important, but no one can dispute that they are both important and should both be addressed.
If an athlete has tight hamstrings, chances are the quads are weak. In that case, the quads and hip flexors would get strengthened while the hamstrings are lengthened.
Also, the athlete would work on abdominal control.
There many contributing factors, and this is why an extensive evaluation is crucial. A good place to start to gain hip functionality is the 4-way hip complex see side bar for how-to do.
By the middle of the season everybody is tired although most become immune to it.
The people that can regenerate, recover and perform without proper recovery are the ones that make it to the major leagues. If a team played in all playoffs series to five and seven games, the total number of games played during the season would be Therefore, as the season progresses the muscles get a little tighter and more fatigued.
If one has tight hamstrings they will get tighter the more the athlete plays. In college they practice almost everyday with games midweek and on the weekends. Volume and load are huge. In Major League Baseball, this is the biggest problem. Cumulative volumes and loads are unchanging. There is no recovery. At lower levels of play, there is more opportunity for recovery, which means the cumulative demands are lower and the strengthening volume and load can be higher. The high volume creates more dysfunction.
Working out and playing games is like shopping; you are spending your recovery. It is important to realize that there is no overdraft protection for your body.
Strength and conditioning practitioners should ensure that pitchers, especially S pitchers at the ML level, perform sufficient and appropriate endurance training to support pitching performance. Introduction Baseball is a sport that requires short, explosive bursts of intense effort. While the duration of each play is relatively short, a typical professional baseball game takes approximately three hours to complete [ 1 ].
During a game, only two of the nine players on the field are involved in every single play, the pitcher and catcher.
While catchers perform many of their skills at submaximal intensities, pitchers are expected to deliver every pitch at maximum, or near maximum effort [ 2 ]. A starting pitcher typically delivers 80— pitches or more per game, whereas a relief pitcher is required to throw significantly fewer pitches per performance 40 or less. Whereas a starting pitcher is typically allowed four days between performances, a reliever might be required to throw on consecutive days.
Pitching relies heavily on the ATP-PCr system during the delivery of the pitch, followed by brief bouts approximately 20—30 s of aerobic recovery between pitches [ 3 ].
Subsequently, pitching appears to place a relatively low demand on the aerobic energy system [ 4 ]. In fact, Potteiger et al. However, since this study was performed in a laboratory setting where the pitchers did not face game competition, one may speculate that the aerobic demands may differ during actual competition. This is significantly greater than HRs achieved during a laboratory study [ 4 ] and during bullpen practice sessions prior to an intra-squad game [ 6 ].
This suggests that arousal and anxiety levels may impact the physiological demands of pitching. Very few studies have investigated the relationship between aerobic fitness and pitching performance [ 4 ]. This may in part be due to the observations that baseball is predominantly an anaerobic sport. While one may assume that the maintenance of ball velocity is an inherent predictor of performance, the art of pitching is a multifaceted and complex skill and success should not be limited to a singular variable, particularly at higher playing levels.
There are other performance indicators and statistics that are more indicative of individual pitching performance and less dependent on team performance, which should be taken into consideration when seeking to evaluate or predict pitching effectiveness. Currently, there is very little data available regarding the cardiorespiratory fitness of baseball players, especially at the professional level.
Thus, the primary purpose of this investigation was to provide descriptive information regarding the cardiorespiratory fitness profiles of Major League ML pitchers, and compare cardiorespiratory fitness levels between starting S and relief R pitchers. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and selected measures of pitching performance. Method, Results, Discussion 2.
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the relationships between lower limb muscular power and hitting performance measures. Hitting measures were obtained after the season for each athlete. Jump power and swing velocity means were Post-season hitting measures for baseball and softball, were batting average. Regression analysis revealed lower limb power, BMI, and height as significant contributors to swing velocity in baseball players, however, batting average, slugging percentage, and home runs did not generate a significant model.
No significant models were generated for hitting measures in softball players. Predicting performance remains a challenge; however, leg power could serve as a moderate predictor of swing velocity in baseball athletes. Correlation of throwing velocity to the results of lower-body field-tests in male college baseball players. J Strength Cond Res ; Miyaguchi K and Demura S.
Relationship between upper-body strength and bat swing speed in high-school baseball players. J Strength Cond Res: