Teaching Unit 1: The Relationship between Genes and Proteins
variations in the structure of the DNA molecule of a gene for a particular trait;. the existence of The Relationship Between Genes, Proteins, and Traits. A gene. Genes are smaller sections of DNA still, and there are many on each chromosome. A gene is a set of instructions on how to make one protein ( molecular. DNA is the genetic code for proteins, which carry out many The relationship between DNA and proteins is one that is vital to sustaining life.
All About DNA and Proteins
A protein may contain a few amino acids or it could have several thousands. The size of a protein is an important physical characteristic that provides useful information including changes in conformation, aggregation state and denaturation. Protein scientists often use particle size analysers in their studies to discuss protein size or molecular weight.
Archibald Garrod Archibald Garrod was one of the first scientists to propose that genes controlled the function of proteins.
Inhe published his observations regarding patients whose urine turned black. This condition known as alkaptonuria happens when there is a buildup of the chemical homogentisate, which causes the darkening of urine. In most situations, excess amounts of amino acid phenylalanine are metabolised by the body. This led Garrod to surmise that the enzyme responsible for its breakdown must be defective in these patients.
These biological molecules, the building blocks of DNA, are often abbreviated with the first letter of their names: This in turn determines the types and order of amino acids included in proteins. Specific three-letter groups of RNA nucleotides code for specific amino acids.
The combination TTT, for example, codes for the amino acid phenylalanine.
Regulatory regions of the gene also contribute to protein synthesis by determining when the gene will be switched on or off. Sciencing Video Vault Proteins In active genes, genetic information determines which proteins are synthesized and when synthesis is turned on or off.
All About DNA and Proteins
The first step that occurs is a process known as transcription, where the important information in the gene is 'written' down on a different molecule. This molecule acts as a messenger to carry the information to other parts of the cell. The cell can then receive the information before a process known as translation comes into play.
If you think about that letter again, imagine your friend speaks a different language than you do, which means the letter must be translated before your friend can understand the contents. The same is true for the process of translation that occurs with DNA. Before a cell can actually use the information and follow its instructions, it needs to understand the information. To do this, your cells have something called ribosomes. These ribosomes act as translators by translating the messenger's code into the proper protein format.
Once this is done, the protein can be directed to the areas of the cell that require the information or they can be sent around the body. Ultimately, it is each gene that provides a unique 'letter' of instructions to produce and deliver proteins all around the body. These proteins have a range of special shapes and chemical makeup to allow them to perform the many important and necessary functions that support and maintain an organism.
- Unit 1: The Relationship between Genes and Proteins