Greek & Roman Mythology - Info
Achilles - The son of the military man Peleus and the sea-nymph Thetis. Priam powerfully invokes the memory of Peleus when he convinces Achilles to return Hector's calling attention to the unclear nature of the gods' relationship to Fate. The hero Achilles disfigured the body of his enemy Hector. the mortal king of the fierce warriors known as the Myrmidons, and Thetis the Nereid, a minor sea. In Greek mythology, Achilles or Achilleus was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad. His mother was the immortal Nereid Thetis, and his father, the mortal Peleus, .. But while Priam is overseeing the private marriage of Polyxena and Achilles, Paris, who would have to.
Agamemnon blames Zeus for their quarrel, returns Briseis to Achilles and presents him with gifts.
The rape of Helen
The troops are given time to rest and eat but Achilles announces that he will fast until Patroklos is avenged. Before returning to battle, Achilles rebukes his horses for not protecting Patroklos. One of them answers by prophesying his death.
Book 20 Zeus calls an assembly and permits the gods to openly assist either side. Fighting resumes and many Trojans die at the hands of Achilles.
Achilles is about to kill Aeneas, when Poseidon rescues the Trojan prince, since it is fated that he will be the sole survivor of the house of Priam. Book 21 Achilles brutally slaughters many Trojans in the River Xanthos, which is soon bleeding red and choked with corpses. After defeating Hector, Achilles drags his corpse by the heels behind his chariot.Troy Thetis
Achilles' strongest interpersonal bond is with Patroclus, whom he loves dearly. As Gregory Nagy points out, For Achilles In ancient texts, philos denoted a general type of love, used for love between family, between friends, a desire or enjoyment of an activity, as well as between lovers.
Achilles is the most dominant, and among the warriors in the Trojan War he has the most fame. Patroclus performs duties such as cooking, feeding and grooming the horses, yet is older than Achilles.
Both characters also sleep with women; see Iliad, IX. Achilles' attachment to Patroclus is an archetypal male bond that occurs elsewhere in Greek culture: Alexander the Great and Hephaestion who made symbolic public references to Achilles and Patroclus, Damon and PythiasOrestes and PyladesHarmodius and Aristogeiton are pairs of comrades who gladly face danger and death for and beside each other.
Halperin writes, Homer, to be sure, does not portray Achilles and Patroclus as lovers although some Classical Athenians thought he implied as much Aeschylus fragmentsRadt; Plato Symposium e—b; Aeschines Against Timarchus—50but he also did little to rule out such an interpretation. In Athens, the relationship was often viewed as being loving and pederastic,  although these roles were anachronistic for the Iliad.
The Greek custom of paiderasteia between members of the same-sex, typically men, was a political, intellectual, and sometimes sexual relationship. The age difference between partners and their respective roles either active or passive was considered to be a key feature. Phaedrus argues that Aeschylus erred in claiming Achilles was the erastes because Achilles was more beautiful and youthful than Patroclus characteristics of the eromenos as well as more noble and skilled in battle characteristics of the erastes.
Further evidence of this debate is found in a speech by an Athenian politician, Aeschines, at his trial in BC.
Achilles and Patroclus - Wikipedia
Aeschines, in placing an emphasis on the importance of paiderasteia to the Greeks, argues that though Homer does not state it explicitly, educated people should be able to read between the lines: According to tradition, Thetis was not a willing bride.
Peleus had to wrestle with her as she manifested a variety of vicious animal-personas to frighten him into releasing her In the above image, when Peleus tried to force Thetis to come with him, she manifested snakes and other animals to frighten him. The wedding of Thetis and Peleus was the backdrop for a defining event that set the stage for the Trojan War.
This event has come to be known as The Judgment of Paris The goddess Eris [Discord or Strife] was in attendance but she did not come to celebrate Eris tossed a golden apple into the midst of the assembled Immortals with the inscription, 'For the most beautiful one. Just as Eris intended, a conflict erupted Aphrodite promised Alexandros the hand of Helen Helen was the daughter of Zeus and without doubt, the most desirable woman in the civilized world.
Alexandros could not refuse such a prize Hera and Athene knew that Aphrodite had bewitched Alexandros but they still harbored an intense personal resentment for him and by extension, all Trojans In retrospect, the marriage of Thetis and Peleus became a very sad historical landmark. By the time of the Quest for the Golden Fleece, Thetis and Peleus had been married and then separated Jason was traveling to his ancestral home of Iolkos when he encountered the goddess Hera Jason saw her plight and plunged into a river to save her.
Of course Hera's presence on the road to Iolkos was not happenstance Hera and Jason were both on missions of vengeance Jason wanted to claim his rightful inheritance from King Pelias and Hera wanted to punish Pelias for excluding her from his sacrificial rituals. Jason was the rightful king of Iolkos but his uncle Pelias had usurped the throne and refused to step down unless Jason could retrieve the Golden Fleece from Kolchis at the eastern edge of the Euxine [Black Sea].
The Golden Fleece was from a flying ram that the god Hermes had created to save Helle and Phrixus from being harmed by their stepmother, Ino. Helle died when she fell from the back of the flying ram but Phrixus managed to fly all the way to Kolchis where he sacrificed the ram and hung its Golden Fleece in the Garden of Ares.
When Pelias proposed that Jason retrieve the Golden Fleece, he assumed that Jason and his companions, the Argonauts, would be dead long before they reached Kolchis Pelias did not suspect that Hera would get other gods and goddesses to aid and protect Jason.
Even with Hera's blessing, the Quest for the Golden Fleece was fraught with hardships and dangers Jason was guided by his own good sense and the omens of the Immortals during the perilous journey Zeus was intent on punishing Jason and Medeia but Hera was equally intent on saving them. In order to reach Kirke's island, Jason had to sail the Argo past the six-headed Skylla and the whirlpool Charybdis Skylla would swoop down from her rocky perch and snatch sailors from the decks of their ships Charybdis was a vicious whirlpool that would suck and spew torrents of water to sink passing ships.
If he survived Skylla and Charybdis, Jason would then have navigate the waters of the forbidding Planktae, also known as the Wandering Rocks or the Rovers.
The Planktae were giant stone islands that clashed together to destroy anyone and anything caught between them In order to put her plans into motion, Hera sent the wind-footed goddess Iris to summon Thetis to Mount Olympos. Iris found Thetis at her father's house under the sea Iris explained Jason's peril to Thetis and asked her to come to Olympos and meet with Hera.
Thetis flew to Mount Olympos without hesitation.
Achilles and Patroclus
With kind words and a certain amount of urgency, Hera explained that the Quest for the Golden Fleece was within "a hair's breath" of failure. She asked Thetis to enlist the help of her sisters and calm the seas so that Jason and the Argonauts could sail past the dreaded monsters Skylla and Charybdis without incident Thetis replied that if Hephaistos would not vent his fires into the sea and if the Master of the Winds, Aeolus, would keep his charges in check, the Nereids would lend their protection to Jason and his crew.
The Nereids swam to the Argonauts and a truly amazing spectacle took place. On one side of the sea passage was the steep rock of Skylla and on the other side Charybdis spouted and roared As the Argo drew near the Planktae, the Nereids surrounded the vessel as Thetis grasped the rudder-blade under the ship. In a way reminiscent of dolphins, the Nereids darted upward and circled around the ship while Thetis guided its course. Thetis rose from the sea and spoke to her estranged husband Peleus.
It's never clearly stated but perhaps one of the reasons Thetis was willing to help Jason was that Peleus was one of the Argonauts. Regardless, she told Peleus to rouse the Argonauts and proceed with all haste to the Planktae where, at the bidding of Hera, the Nereids would draw the Argo safely through the dangerous straits. Peleus was temporarily bewildered at the sight of Thetis but quickly regained senses When the Argo was about to smash against the Planktae, the Nereids immediately raised the edge of their garments and darted up on the rocky cliffs above the waves and then jumped from one side to the other.
As the ship was raised aloft by the waves, the Nereids caught it and toss it to and fro like young girls throwing a ball for sport. The waves rose like towering crags and then plummeted to the depths of the sea When Hera saw the ship being bounced and swamped by the waves, she was seized by fear and threw her arms around Athene for comfort. The frenzy continued until the Argo was clear of the Planktae and the Argonauts could catch the wind and sail on.
As to whether Hera was sincere or not was never called into question because Thetis did not desire such a union for her son