Planning and Controlling
Planning and controlling are inter-related to each other. Planning sets the goals for the organization and controlling ensures their accomplishment. Planning. Planning and control are critical management activities regardless of the type of There are many definitions for the term “planning,” each person has his/her own kind of organization relationships and personal qualifications are needed, . Planning and Controlling. Internal institutional analysis examples include: Assessment of the relationship of enrollment and.Relationship Between Planning and Controlling - Class 12 Business Controlling
Planners must then attempt to forecast future conditions. These forecasts form the basis for planning. Planners must establish objectives, which are statements of what needs to be achieved and when. Planners must then identify alternative courses of action for achieving objectives. After evaluating the various alternatives, planners must make decisions about the best courses of action for achieving objectives.
They must then formulate necessary steps and ensure effective implementation of plans. Finally, planners must constantly evaluate the success of their plans and take corrective action when necessary. There are many different types of plans and planning. Strategic planning involves analyzing competitive opportunities and threats, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the organization, and then determining how to position the organization to compete effectively in their environment.
- 1.5 Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling
- Relationship Between Planning and Control Explained
Strategic planning has a long time frame, often three years or more. Strategic planning generally includes the entire organization and includes formulation of objectives.
Tactical planning is intermediate-range one to three years planning that is designed to develop relatively concrete and specific means to implement the strategic plan.
Middle-level managers often engage in tactical planning. Operational planning generally assumes the existence of organization-wide or subunit goals and objectives and specifies ways to achieve them. Operational planning is short-range less than a year planning that is designed to develop specific action steps that support the strategic and tactical plans. Organizing Organizing is the function of management that involves developing an organizational structure and allocating human resources to ensure the accomplishment of objectives.
The structure of the organization is the framework within which effort is coordinated. The structure is usually represented by an organization chart, which provides a graphic representation of the chain of command within an organization. Decisions made about the structure of an organization are generally referred to as organizational design decisions.
Organizing also involves the design of individual jobs within the organization. Decisions must be made about the duties and responsibilities of individual jobs, as well as the manner in which the duties should be carried out.
Organizing at the level of the organization involves deciding how best to departmentalize, or cluster, jobs into departments to coordinate effort effectively.
There are many different ways to departmentalize, including organizing by function, product, geography, or customer. Many larger organizations use multiple methods of departmentalization. Organizing at the level of a particular job involves how best to design individual jobs to most effectively use human resources. Traditionally, job design was based on principles of division of labor and specialization, which assumed that the more narrow the job content, the more proficient the individual performing the job could become.
However, experience has shown that it is possible for jobs to become too narrow and specialized.
Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling – Principles of Management
For example, how would you like to screw lids on jars one day after another, as you might have done many decades ago if you worked in company that made and sold jellies and jams? When this happens, negative outcomes result, including decreased job satisfaction and organizational commitment, increased absenteeism, and turnover. Recently, many organizations have attempted to strike a balance between the need for worker specialization and the need for workers to have jobs that entail variety and autonomy.
Many jobs are now designed based on such principles as empowerment, job enrichment and teamwork.
Relationship between planning and controlling
From company-wide meetings to team huddles, HUI employees know and understand their customers and how HUI might service them best Huimfg, Leading Leading involves the social and informal sources of influence that you use to inspire action taken by others. If managers are effective leaders, their subordinates will be enthusiastic about exerting effort to attain organizational objectives.
The behavioral sciences have made many contributions to understanding this function of management. Personality research and studies of job attitudes provide important information as to how managers can most effectively lead subordinates. Objectives specifying the results expected indicate the end points of what is to be done, where the primary emphasis is to be placed, and what is to be accomplished by the network of strategies, policies, procedures, rules, budgets and programs.
Enterprise objectives should give direction to the nature of all major plans which, by reflecting these objectives, define the objectives of major departments. Major department objectives, in turn, control the objectives of subordinate departments, and so on down the line.
Relationship Between Planning and Control Explained
The objectives of lesser departments will be better framed, however, if subdivision managers understand the overall enterprise objectives and the implied derivative goals and if they are given an opportunity to contribute their ideas to them and to the setting of their own goals.
An objective can be defined as the end point goal toward which management directs its efforts and resources. However, there are four outstanding benefits that result from the statement of objectives, these are: These are forecast data of a factual nature, applicable basic policies, and existing company plans. Premises, then, are planning assumptions — in other words, the expected environment of plans in operation.
Relationship between Planning and Controlling
This step leads to one of the major principles of planning. The more individuals charged with planning understand and agree to utilize consistent planning premises, the more coordinated enterprise planning will be. Planning premises include far more than the usual basic forecasts of population, prices, costs, production, markets, and similar matters. Because the future environment of plans is so complex, it would not be profitable or realistic to make assumptions about every detail of the future environment of a plan.
Since agreement to utilize a given set of premises is important to coordinate planning, it becomes a major responsibility of managers, starting with those at the top, to make sure that subordinate managers understand the premises upon which they are expected to plan.
It is not unusual for chief executives in well- managed companies to force top managers with differing views, through group deliberation, to arrive at a set of major premises that all can accept. The focus of this step is to search for and examine alternative courses of action, especially those not immediately apparent.
There is seldom a plan for which reasonable alternatives do not exist, and quite often an alternative that is not obvious proves to be the best. The more common problem is not finding alternatives, but reducing the number of alternatives so that the most promising may be analyzed.