Intergroup Relations and the Management of Diversity The three largest visible minority groups were South Asians (25 percent), Chinese ( . These definitions correlate to the concept that the dominant group is that which holds the most. A dominant minority is a minority group that has overwhelming political, economic, or cultural .. African Liberation Movements: Contemporary Struggles against White Minority Rule (Institute of Race Relations: Oxford University Press, London. Dominant-Minority Relations. The Consequences of Subordinate-Group Status • There are several consequences for a group of subordinate status. These differ.
The Sociology of Race In a Swedish sociologist Gunnar Myrdal published his classical work An American Dilemma in which he describes the dilemma which exists between the American values of freedom and equality on one hand and discrimination and racial prejudice on the other hand.
Merton describes the self-fulfilling prophercy occurs, if one group is considered superior and another is considered inferior, and people begin to behave as if superiority and inferiority is innate and does exist, after a while the superior group will in fact display superior characteristics and the inferior group will begin to display inferior characteristics.
Invasion refers to the situation which occurs when members of a different or new group enters into a social or physical environment from which they were previously absent. Competition refers to the process which develops when members of the new group begin to struggle with the established group for scarce articles.
Minority & Dominant Groups
Conflict occurs when one group seeks to institute techniques to establish and perpetuate a position of superiority. Accommodation refers to the process which occurs when two or more groups are able arrive at mutually agree able settlements relating to specific issues in contentionwill be developed between them.
Assimilation refers to the process through which the identities of seperate groups merge into a single group. Segregation is a process by which one or more groups are isolated from another group. Annihilation is a situation where one group attempts to wipe out the other group. Partition is a process which occurs when a dominant group physically isolates the subordinate group.
Paternalism is a social system which operates by the dominant racial or ethnic group using the minority group to achieve its ends under the supposition that the minority group requires the guidance and help of the superior dominant group.
Unit One: Key Concepts in Dominant and Minority Group Relations | ghoffarth
Pluralism is a social system in which different ethnic and racial groups exist side by side and maintain seperate cultures without developing positions of subordination. The Census continues the option first introduced in the Census for respondents to choose more than one race. Some of the historical changes to the Census Bureau definitions of race include: White, Colored blackMulatto people with some black bloodChinese, and Indian.
Eight races were listed, half of them applying to black or partly black populations: Others Filipino, Korean, Hawaiian made an appearance and have stayed ever since. Ethnicity Ethnicity refers to a sense of identity one has based on a common ancestry and cultural heritage. Characteristics such as language and religion help shape a common identity.
American society contains hundreds of different ethnic groups.
During the year, there are a number of ethnic festivals held, where people gather together to celebrate cultural traditions. Most people identify themselves with their ethnicity and not their race. There is less of an emphasis on physical traits when dealing with ethnicity. For example, people who belong to the Jewish ethnic group have come from many corners of the globe and do not share a dominant physical trait.
Ethnicity is also easier to modify than race. People who emigrate to the United States often modify their ethnicity through changes in language, clothing, food, and the like. What this means is that membership in an ethnic group is more arbitrary and subjective than membership in a racial group. How Do Race and Ethnicity Differ? According to research done by Stephen Cornell and Douglas Hartmann, there are differences between the concepts of race and ethnicity.
The first is that while both are used to describe some perceived difference, ethnicity does not have to be hierarchical, while race is inherently hierarchical. Race was generally assigned by a dominant group to a less powerful one. The second difference is that ethnicity can be, and often is, assigned as a category, but frequently it is asserted by the group itself.
An ethnicity can affirm a common ancestry, history band sense of community. Ethnicity is not necessarily all about power relationships, although it can be.
The table below summarizes the major aspects unique to race and that ethnicity as outlined by Cornell and Hartmann Race is usually more the product of assignment than choice. The dominant group is usually the one to categorize less powerful minorities into racial categories. Racial categories are created by people who want to assign them to someone else. Ethnicity frequently starts with assertion by members of the group themselves. Assignment is not necessary to ethnicity. Ethnicity may be assigned or chosen: Race took on its contemporary meaning during a time of globalization: European colonization of the Southern hemisphere.
Faced with radically physically and culturally different people, Europeans established their whiteness and white privilege as the norm and non-whiteness as an inferior status.
Assertion of ethnicity may be related to contemporary globalization and the fear of cultural homogenization 3. The designation of races is always an assertion of power to define a social hierarchy and justify the exploitation and brutalization of the racial minorities.
The social construction of race is often used to legitimize domination. This is not necessarily the case for ethnicity. Ethnicity is not as necessarily attached to power as race is. Ethnicity can be related to power but it often starts as a group assertion unrelated to power and material interests. The minorities are perceived as less intelligent and having a lower moral worth, or as being at lower stage of evolution than the dominant group.
The ways on which some persons fail to meet the standard of worthiness may vary, but the idea of failure is usually implicit in the racial designation.
The primary exception is the designation White. Ethnocentrism is often a part of ethnic identity but it is not as virulent and biologically rooted as race. The unworthiness attached to race is impossible to shed because it is seen as biologically determined.