# Flow rate and pipe size relationship

### Pipe diameter and flow rate calculator

This is a incomplete question. There is one more thing which needs to be specified that is maximum pressure drop which across which flow. Compare those friction loss values to the flow rate column of the table to see that doubling the pipe diameter increases the flow rate by at least four times. If the velocity was constant, you would get a flow rate that scaled with And the product of these two squares gives us the 4th power relationship. . So the new pipe has twice the diameter of the old one, and the flow rate is 4.

If you try to push a heavy box along the ground, it will require a certain amount of effort to do it. Since the weight and the size of the box will not change, the work required should be the same regardless of the surface it is resting on. However, the box will be much easier to move on a smooth linoleum floor than trying to move it on a deep pile carpet. The difference in the required effort is due to friction.

The carpet has a higher resistance to the movement of the box than the smooth floor.

### How does the radius of a pipe affect the rate of flow of fluid? - Physics Stack Exchange

To move a given volume of liquid through a pipe requires a certain amount of energy. An energy or pressure difference must exist to cause the liquid to move. A portion of that energy is lost to the resistance to flow. This resistance to flow is called head loss due to friction. Forms of Flow Resistance Head Loss due to Friction One form of resistance to flow is due to the viscosity of the liquid. Viscosity is the amount of work needed to move one "box" of liquid against another "box" of liquid.

Every liquid has its own value for this resistance to flow. The values for water are lower than for the motor oil. Another characteristic of any liquid is its attraction to a surface. It attaches itself to any surface and cannot be moved.

The liquid in the "box" on the very surface of a pipe does not flow or move. It always remains stationary. The liquid in the "box" above it has to slide against it and that requires an amount of energy to overcome friction between the two "boxes.

A layer is formed by this non-moving liquid and reduces the inside diameter of the pipe. This increases the velocity of the liquid passing through it. The liquid is not moving at the pipe wall but has a much higher velocity at the center of the pipe. The condition of the inside of a pipe also has a great effect on the head loss of the flow of liquid.

The rougher it is, the thicker the layer of non-moving or slow moving liquid near the pipe wall. This reduces the inside diameter of the pipe, increasing the velocity of the liquid.

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With the increase in velocity comes an increase in friction losses. Pipe Fittings Any time a liquid flow changes direction there is resistance.

Since all liquids have weight, they also have momentum. This means the liquid will always try to continue moving in the same direction. When the liquid encounters a change in direction such as an elbowits momentum carries the flow to the outer edge of the fitting. Because the liquid is trying to flow around the outer edge of the fitting, the effective area of the fitting is reduced.

- Pipe diameter calculator

The effect is similar to attaching a smaller diameter pipe in the system. The velocity of the liquid increases and the head loss due to friction increases. Energy Loss Any time a liquid is asked to change direction or to change velocity there is a change in energy.

The energy lost by the liquid is converted to heat created by friction. Since the amount of liquid exiting a pipe has to equal the amount entering the pipe, the velocity must be equal. If the velocity is equal, then the velocity energy head must be equal. This only leaves one place for the energy to come from: The measured pressure entering the pipe will be higher than the measured pressure exiting the pipe. Friction Loss Tables In an effort to easily predict the head loss in pipes and fittings, there were a number of studies made many years ago.

These have been published, as formulas and tables, for different size pipes, fittings, and flow ratings. The most common used are "Darcy, Weisbach" and "Williams and Hazen. The "Darcy, Weisbach" tables are based on the head loss in clean, new pipe. They are based on the head loss in ten-year old pipe. Their values must be adjusted for different pipe age and materials. The data is given in table form for the different pipe sizes and flow rates.

**Volume flow rate and equation of continuity - Fluids - Physics - Khan Academy**

What is the relationship between pressure drop and flow rate in a pipeline? To understand the relationship between the pressure drop across a pipeline and the flow rate through that pipeline, we need to go back to one of the most important fundamental laws that governs the flow of fluid in a pipe: Total Fluid Energy Daniel Bernoulli, a Swiss mathematician and physicist, theorized that the total energy of a fluid remains constant along a streamline assuming no work is done on or by the fluid and no heat is transferred into or out of the fluid.

The total energy of the fluid is the sum of the energy the fluid possesses due to its elevation elevation headvelocity velocity headand static pressure pressure head. The energy loss, or head loss, is seen as some heat lost from the fluid, vibration of the piping, or noise generated by the fluid flow. Between two points, the Bernoulli Equation can be expressed as: In other words, the upstream location can be at a lower or higher elevation than the downstream location.

If the fluid is flowing up to a higher elevation, this energy conversion will act to decrease the static pressure. If the fluid flows down to a lower elevation, the change in elevation head will act to increase the static pressure. Conversely, if the fluid is flowing down hill from an elevation of 75 ft to 25 ft, the result would be negative and there will be a Pressure Change due to Velocity Change Fluid velocity will change if the internal flow area changes.

For example, if the pipe size is reduced, the velocity will increase and act to decrease the static pressure.