Type One — The Enneagram Institute
CONTENTS. INTRODUCTION i. MAPS x. BOOK I. 1. BOOK II. 5. BOOK III. 9 The Analects of Confucius is an anthology of brief passages that present the cumulate power locally, and the rising fluidity of social mobility which this type of open . Pattern (wen 文) – denoting a relation to features of civilization that are distinc. The purpose of this study is to examine relationships between Confucian family values . Table 5. Summary of hierarchical regression analyses predicting attitudes .. psychologists describe this type of culture as “collectivism” (e.g., Brewer 9 been seen as a choice to meet personal needs and happiness. Rather it is. What Each Type Brings to the Relationship. An Enneagram Five/Nine pair gives each other a great deal of personal and emotional space for activities and for.
We do not know how Confucius himself was educated, but tradition has it that he studied ritual with the fictional Daoist Master Lao Dan, music with Chang Hong, and the lute with Music-master Xiang.
In his middle age Confucius is supposed to have gathered about him a group of disciples whom he taught and also to have devoted himself to political matters in Lu.
The number of Confucius' disciples has been greatly exaggerated, with Sima Qian and other sources claiming that there were as many as three thousand of them.
Perhaps seventy or seventy-two were a maximum, though both of these numbers are suspicious given Confucius' supposed age at death. When he entered the Grand Temple he asked about everything. The first of these has to do with Duke Jing of Qi r. These are strong signals that in the eyes of the authors of the Zuozhuan, Confucius was by this time in his life established as a person of significance in Lu.
Meng Xizi went on, however, and declared that what another Lu nobleman named Zang Sunhe had once said was true in the case of Confucius: In Duke Zhao of Lu moved against the head of the most powerful—and the wealthiest— of the families: But the attack failed and the duke was forced to flee from Lu and spend the remaining years of his reign in exile, first in Lu's large neighbor Qi and then in a town in the state of Jin where he died in According to Sima Qian, when Duke Zhao was first forced into exile, Confucius also went to Qi to serve as a retainer in the household of the nobleman Gao Zhaozi.
He was no doubt commenting on politics in Qi where—as was also the case in Lu—power rested not in the hands of the ruler but instead in the hands of the powerful ministerial families who were supposed to serve him. Some unidentified adversity probably precipitated Confucius' departure from Qi.
And it seems that back home in Lu he was fairing poorly in locating employment. So noteworthy was this failure that a passage in the Analects comments on it: Be friendly toward your brothers and extend this to governing. Why must one be in office to govern?
As noted earlier, what mattered to the Confucius of the Analects was not winning an official position but remaining faithful to the moral behavior he valued. The Zuozhuan confirms that he held the post starting sometime around Given what one might expect a director of crime to do—to enforce the law and impose corporal punishments on those found guilty of crime—it is odd to think that Confucius served in the role given his famous opposition to the use of fines and punishments, dismissing them as ineffective and counterproductive in governing people: The contradiction among our sources is paradigmatic of the problems we face in figuring out the events in Confucius' life.
Perhaps the claims that Confucius served as director of crime are fictional. Perhaps he did serve in the role and learned from the experience the ineffectiveness of punishment in maintaining order in society. Or perhaps the Analects passage is an interpolation—something Confucius himself never said—added by a branch of his school that wanted to represent their master as strongly opposed to legalistic measures in spite of his having served as a law enforcement officer in Lu.
As it is presented in the Zuozhuan, the single most important event in Confucius' official career in Lu, and perhaps even in his lifetime, was the BCE meeting at Jiagu in the state of Qi when he was called upon to protect the life of Duke Ding of Lu r.
To formalize a peace agreement between Lu and Qi, the rulers of the two states met at Jiagu and signed an oath promising to abide by certain terms and conditions lest they be harshly dealt with by the gods and spirits. The Qi ruler and his lieutenants had plotted to use the occasion to humiliate Lu and perhaps even to seize Lu's ruler.
The Confucius of the Zuozhuan is shown as adroit and skilful in dealing with these dangerous circumstances. He succeeds not only in getting Qi to withdraw its armed men from the meeting but also to return to Lu lands that Qi had previously appropriated in return for Lu's future participation in Qi's military adventures. The duke attempted to have the families tear down the walls of the fortresses that secured their fiefs—the duke's argument was that the fortresses might be seized by lower-ranking stewards and thus were more of a threat than a benefit to the families—but the population of the Ji family fortress at Bi rebelled and attacked the Lu capital threatening the life of the duke.
Again, Confucius came to the duke's rescue and the rebellion by the Bi masses was eventually put down by the army of Lu. However, the Meng family simply refused to tear down the walls that protected their family fortress at Cheng. Duke Ding led an army to lay siege to Cheng and level its walls but he failed to do so and his weakness and ineptitude were made all the more obvious by this failure.
What role Confucius played in the duke's plans is difficult to determine. It seems rather that, at least according to the Zuozhuan, his disciple Zi Lu, in the employ of the Ji family, played a more significant part. Whatever the case may be, in the stories that follow this dramatic tale, Confucius, along with Zi Lu and other disciples, departed Lu late in and went into exile.
In the company of his disciples, Confucius travelled in the states of Wei, Song, Chen, Cai, and Chu, purportedly looking for a ruler who might employ him but meeting instead with indifference and, occasionally, severe hardship and danger. Several of these episodes, as preserved in Sima Qian's account, appear to be little more than prose retellings of songs found in the ancient Chinese Book of Songs.
Confucius' life is thus rendered a re-enactment of the suffering and alienation of the personas of the poems.
Confronted by Zi Lu's displeasure, Confucius swore he did not do anything wrong with the woman. While it is possible to suspect that the story is a later addition to the Analects, that does not mean that it is less believable than anything else the text says about events in Confucius' life.
Later on, in the state of Song, Confucius just barely escaped with his life from an attack by Marshal Huan, a formidable Song nobleman, who for unknown reasons was intent on killing him.
According to passages in the Analects, the duke of She asked Confucius about the art of governing and also asked Zi Lu about Confucius' character. Both passages are meant to suggest that Confucius found the duke lacking in virtue and learning.Enneagram types 9 & 4: "spinning out" and relationship difficulties
Followers fell ill and none was able to rise to his feet. Confucius' reply to Zi Lu is not merely a lesson on the distinction between the superior man's endurance of hardship and the tendency of his opposite, the petty individual, to resort to crime. Confucius is drawing the distinction when all were in straitened circumstances and as such his words should be read as a pointed reminder to Zi Lu and the other disciples traveling with him at the time that, in spite of the difficulties they were facing, they should adhere to the highest standards of ethical behavior.
Perhaps it was Zi Lu's indignation that triggered in Confucius a worry that his followers might take extreme and even immoral measures to find food. Either inspired by this story or informed by tales and traditions that are lost to us, a passage in the Mozi—a text that preserves a political and social philosophy greatly at odds with the teachings of Confucius and the Ru school—claims that Confucius, who had a reputation for being scrupulous about his meals, ate pork given him by Zi Lu even though he had reason to believe that Zi Lu had stolen it.
The Ji family was still the most powerful in Lu as they had been when Confucius had departed in the aftermath of Duke Ding's aborted efforts to dismantle the fortresses of the three Huan families.
While he had some interaction with the head of the Ji family as well as with the reigning Lu ruler, Duke Ai, Confucius appears to have spent the remainder of his life teaching, putting in order the Book of Songs, the Book of Documents, and other ancient classics, as well as editing the Spring and Autumn Annals, the court chronicle of Lu.
Sima Qian's account also provides background on Confucius' connection to the early canonical texts on ritual and on music the latter of which was lost at an early date. The Analects passage which appears to corroborate Sima Qian's claim seems corrupt and hence unreliable on this point.
Ren has been translated as "benevolence", "perfect virtue", "goodness" or even "human-heartedness". Confucianism says that if the ruler lacks ren, it will be difficult for his subjects to behave humanely.
Ren is the basis of Confucian political theory; the ruler is exhorted to refrain from acting inhumanely towards his subjects. An inhumane ruler runs the risk of losing the Mandate of Heaven or, in other words, the right to rule. A ruler lacking such a mandate need not be obeyed, but a ruler who reigns humanely and takes care of the people is to be obeyed, for the benevolence of his dominion shows that he has been mandated by heaven.
Confucius himself had little to say on the active will of the people, though he believed the ruler should definitely pay attention to the wants and needs of the people and take good care of them.
Confucianism - Wikipedia
Mencius, however, did state that the people's opinion on certain weighty matters should be polled. Ren also includes traits that are a part of being righteous, such as hsinmeaning to make one's words compliment one's actions; liwhich means to properly participate in everyday rituals; ching, or "seriousness"; and yi, which means right action.
Confucians basically held the view that government should be run by junzi who concentrate solely on the welfare of the people they govern. They are people of instinct and passion who use convictions and judgments to control and direct themselves and their actions. In the effort to stay true to their principles, Ones resist being affected by their instinctual drives, consciously not giving in to them or expressing them too freely.
The result is a personality type that has problems with repression, resistance, and aggression. They are usually seen by others as highly self- controlled, even rigid, although this is not how Ones experience themselves. Cassandra is a therapist in private practice who recalls the difficulty this caused her in her youth. Even now, if I have a conflict with a friend and need to address an issue, I rehearse ahead of time how to express clearly what I want, need, and observe, and yet not be harsh or blaming in my anger which is often scathing.
But by attempting to create their own brand of perfection, they often create their own personal hell. When Ones have gotten completely entranced in their personality, there is little distinction between them and this severe, unforgiving voice.
Separating from it and seeing its genuine strengths and limitations is what growth for Ones is about. Become extraordinarily wise and discerning. By accepting what is, they become transcendentally realistic, knowing the best action to take in each moment.
Humane, inspiring, and hopeful: Conscientious with strong personal convictions: Wish to be rational, reasonable, self-disciplined, mature, moderate in all things.
Extremely principled, always want to be fair, objective, and ethical: Sense of responsibility, personal integrity, and of having a higher purpose often make them teachers and witnesses to the truth. Average Levels Level 4: Dissatisfied with reality, they become high-minded idealists, feeling that it is up to them to improve everything: