the relationship between these leadership styles and employee performance. leadership theories have been proposed in the last fifty years which are claimed . This study employs a well-established theory of leadership, (LMX) theory, to consider the effects of the manager-employee relationship on. generated a growing level of interest in the conduct of employment relations, not just at the .. leadership when recruiting and directing workers, to have a clear.
With the exception of one study by Grissom et al. Our study extends the work of Grissom et al. As such, our study is able to offer new insights about how gender dynamics and LMX affect employee performance in public agencies.
Second, we examine the effects of duration of the manager-employee relationship on manager assessments of employee performance. For example, in the short-term employees may be just learning role expectations as the supervisor provides role information to the employee, but in longer duration dyads roles become more established and expectations become clearer Duarte et al.
As such, we also investigate whether the duration of the dyadic relationship influences the effect of LMX on employee performance ratings. Our review has identified only one study that examined whether early stages of the relationship yield different performance ratings than later stages dependent on the quality of the relationship Duarte et aland we aim to add to the literature by broadening the understanding of these effects among public employees.
We examine the linkages between LMX quality, gender differences, dyadic duration, and ratings of employee in-role and extra-role performance with data that we collected using two separate surveys from employees and managers working in a large state agency. For extra-role performance, we focus specifically on employee helping or interpersonal citizenship behavior directed toward the immediate workgroup Pandey, Wright, and Moynihan ; Settoon and Mossholder ; Vigoda-Gadot and Beeri In the next sections we review the extant organizational research on LMX, gender, dyad tenure, and employee performance and develop a set of testable hypotheses about the direct and interactive effects of LMX, gender differences, and dyad tenure on public employee job performance.Theories of the employment relationship
We then describe our study methods and present the findings in detail. We conclude with a discussion of theoretical implications and avenues for future research. In particular, citizenship behaviors in recent studies have been associated with, and even deemed vital to, enhanced service quality and organizational effectiveness for organizations generally and within public organizations more specifically Koys ; Podsakoff et al.
As public managers face increased pressures from a variety of stakeholders, especially citizens, for increased efficacy and efficiency, understanding how to encourage employees to go beyond formal job expectations in ways that can overcome bureaucratic constraints that negatively affect service delivery is especially relevant.
Efficacy and serving the public well are particular concerns for public agencies not only because of their administrative imperative to do so but also in part due to increasing demands for government accountability and transparency Vigoda-Gadot and Golembiewski Overall, the public benefits when public employees engage in citizenship behaviors because such activities can strengthen the overall ethos of public service and support the willingness to serve others Vigoda-Gadot and Beeri Although most leadership theories consider leadership as a function of leader behavior and traits within different situational contexts, the relevant level of analysis in LMX theory is the dyadic relationship between the leader e.
According to this perspective, the quality of the relationship between a manager and an employee is the crux of leadership Dienesch and Liden ; Gerstner and Dayand effective leadership occurs when the manager and employee are able to develop and maintain a high-quality relationship and realize the benefits from such a partnership Graen and Uhl-Bien, Understanding how such relationships can be developed and nurtured may help public agencies to reach desired organizational outcomes.
Both role theory Katz and Kahn and social exchange theory Blau provide the underpinnings for the LMX perspective, which describes the dyadic process through which employees negotiate and develop roles and expectations over time through a series of exchanges or interactions with their manager Graen and Cashman ; Graen ; Graen, Novak, and Sommerkamp ; Graen and Scandura ; Graen and Uhl-Bien ; Sparrowe and Liden These interactions can be formal i.
Economic exchanges are contractual in which the responsibilities and obligations of each party are clearly defined and, because they can be enforced based on the terms of the contract, are generally not dependent on interpersonal trust Blau ; Wayne and Green Specifically, economic exchanges do not go beyond the basic job and employment requirements Sparrowe and Liden Leadership implies authority in the broadest sense of the word and not simply the power to wield the stick [ 11 ].
It is based on objective factors, such as managerial ability, and more subjective characteristics that include personal qualities of the leaders. The factors are of even greater importance given the current emerging culture of the nurse who has a clear and assertive vision about the nature of clinical practice [ 12 ].
Currently, there is a shortage of nurses in clinical care, and good leaders can help any attrition. Furthermore, the leadership skills of nurse administrators can contribute to the success of their organization [ 13 ].
Leadership is of increasing importance in clinical nursing [ 14 ]. Although leadership and organizational culture constructs have been well studied, the relationship between them has not been established in the field of nursing [ 6 ]. This study explores the relationship between organizational culture and leadership behavior. Although the data indicated that the development of an organizational culture is related to the behavior of its leaders, the results failed conclude whether this affected their attitudes or behavior as employees.
From the nursing administration perspective, the normal course of action taken to influence employee behavior and achieve the objectives set by the administrators comes through administrative management.
Therefore, as well as discussing the relationship between leadership behavior and organizational culture, this research will investigate the effect of leader behavior and organizational culture towards employee job satisfaction.
The findings clearly show that hospital administrators should be concerned about the effects of leadership behavior and organizational culture on the attitude towards work of their employees.
This should help administrators alter their behavior in order to maintain a good mutual relationship with their subordinates, improving their working attitude and, more importantly, reducing potential conflicts.
Relationship between organizational culture and leadership behavior Culture is socially learned and transmitted by members; it provides the rules for behavior within organizations [ 18 ].
The definition of organizational culture is of the belief that can guide staff in knowing what to do and what not to do, including practices, values, and assumptions about their work [ 19 ].
The core values of an organization begin with its leadership, which will then evolve to a leadership style. Subordinates will be led by these values and the behavior of leaders, such that the behavior of both parties should become increasingly in line.
When strong unified behavior, values and beliefs have been developed, a strong organizational culture emerges. Leaders have to appreciate their function in maintaining an organization's culture.
Relationship between Organizational Culture, Leadership Behavior and Job Satisfaction
This would in return ensure consistent behavior between members of the organization, reducing conflicts and creating a healthy working environment for employees [ 20 ]. Hypothesis 1- Organizational culture is positively correlated with leadership behavior. Relationship between leadership behavior and job satisfaction Job satisfaction has been associated with nurses who perceive their managers as supportive and caring.
A supportive manager shares values, believes in a balance of power, and provides opportunities for open dialogue with nurses [ 21 ], which in turn reduces the chances of internal conflicts. This type of leader is successful in his or her role and is supportive and responsive to clinical nurses, thereby preserving power and status within the hospital system.
Such leaders are valued throughout the organization and have executive power to do what they see as necessary to create a positive environment for nursing [ 22 ]. Accordingly, they have a measurable effect on the morale and job satisfaction of nurses [ 23 ]. Hypothesis 2 - Leadership behavior is positively correlated with job satisfaction. Relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction Organizational culture expresses shared assumptions, values and beliefs, and is the social glue holding an organization together [ 24 ].
Relationship between Organizational Culture, Leadership Behavior and Job Satisfaction
A strong culture is a system of rules that spells out how people should behave [ 25 ]. An organization with a strong culture has common values and codes of conduct for its employees, which should help them accomplish their missions and goals.
Work recognition and job satisfaction can be achieved when employees can complete the tasks assigned to them by the organization. Organizational culture is positively correlated with job satisfaction.
The measurement of organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction A structured questionnaire was compiled based on similar studies published in international journals [ 2627 ]. Twenty-three factors regarding organizational culture were taken from Tsui et al. Our research was focused on clinical nurses in hospitals; therefore, refinements were made to the questionnaire designed by Tsui et al. The study invited three directors or supervisors from the medical center to validate the questionnaire.
Lastly, there were 22 questions in the organizational culture section.