# Data and relationship among variables in statistics

### Relationships Between Two Variables | STAT

Now we will study the relationship between two variables where both a comparison of conditional probabilities and graphically represent the data using . Recall that there is a statistical relationship between two variables when the average . The data presented in Figure provide a good example of a positive. This statistical procedure will estimate the relationship of each variable toward the You can analyse your data with SPSS (categorical analysis, CATPCA).

## What Are Variables?

If a variable can take on any value between its minimum value and its maximum value, it is called a continuous variable; otherwise, it is called a discrete variable. Some examples will clarify the difference between discrete and continouous variables. Suppose the fire department mandates that all fire fighters must weigh between and pounds. The weight of a fire fighter would be an example of a continuous variable; since a fire fighter's weight could take on any value between and pounds.

Suppose we flip a coin and count the number of heads. The number of heads could be any integer value between 0 and plus infinity. However, it could not be any number between 0 and plus infinity.

## Descriptive Statistics

We could not, for example, get 2. Therefore, the number of heads must be a discrete variable. Bivariate Data Statistical data are often classified according to the number of variables being studied.

When we conduct a study that looks at only one variable, we say that we are working with univariate data.

Suppose, for example, that we conducted a survey to estimate the average weight of high school students. Since we are only working with one variable weightwe would be working with univariate data.

When we conduct a study that examines the relationship between two variables, we are working with bivariate data. Suppose we conducted a study to see if there were a relationship between the height and weight of high school students.

### Analyzing Relationships Among Variables

Since we are working with two variables height and weightwe would be working with bivariate data. Test Your Understanding Which of the following statements are true? Correlation denotes positive or negative association between variables in a study. Two variables are positively associated when larger values of one tend to be accompanied by larger values of the other.

The variables are negatively associated when larger values of one tend to be accompanied by smaller values of the other Moore An example of a strong positive correlation would be the correlation between age and job experience. Typically, the longer people are alive, the more job experience they might have.

• Analyzing Relationships Among Variables
• Relationship Between Variables
• Relationships Between Two Variables

An example of a strong negative relationship might occur between the strength of people's party affiliations and their willingness to vote for a candidate from different parties. In many elections, Democrats are unlikely to vote for Republicans, and vice versa.

Regression Regression analysis attempts to determine the best "fit" between two or more variables. The independent variable in a regression analysis is a continuous variable, and thus allows you to determine how one or more independent variables predict the values of a dependent variable.

Simple Linear Regression is the simplest form of regression. Like a correlation, it determines the extent to which one independent variables predicts a dependent variable. You can think of a simple linear regression as a correlation line. Regression analysis provides you with more information than correlation does, however. It tells you how well the line "fits" the data.