discuss the interrelationships of curriculum, instruction, assessment, and . curriculum must be seen in relationship to other tools used in school, such as . Figure incorporates ideas from the other models, but curriculum is at the center. Designing Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment, and Professional Development: The systemic and dynamic relationship among the four elements also means that . Instruction should focus students on the central concepts and fundamental . Request PDF on ResearchGate | Relationship of Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment: Implications to STEM Education | This paper aims to convey the.
Students need opportunities, with increasing sophistication across the grade levels, to consider not only the applications and implications of science and engi-neering in society but also the nature of the human endeavor of science and engineering themselves. They likewise need to develop an awareness of the careers made possible through scientific and engineering capabilities.
Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: For many students, these aspects are the pathways that capture their interest in these fields and build their identities as engaged and capable learners of science and engineering [ 3435 ].
Teaching science and engineering without reference to their rich variety of human stories, to the puzzles of the past and how they were solved, and to the issues of today that science and engineering must help address would be a major omission. Finally, when considering how to integrate these aspects of learning into the science and engineering curriculum, curriculum developers, as well as classroom teachers, face many further important questions.
For example, is a topic best addressed by invoking its historical development as a story of scientific discovery? Is it best addressed in the context of a current problem or issue? Or is it best conveyed through an investigation? What technology or simulation tools can aid student learning? In addition, how are diverse student backgrounds explicitly engaged as resources in structuring learning experiences [ 3637 ]?
And does the curriculum offer sufficiently varied examples and opportunities so that all students may identify with scientific knowledge-building practices and participate fully [ 3839 ]?
These choices occur both in the development of curriculum materials and, as we discuss in the following section, in decisions made by the teacher in planning instruction. Instruction encompasses the activities of both teachers and students.
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It can be carried out by a variety of pedagogical techniques, sequences of activities, and ordering of topics. Although the framework does not specify a particular pedagogy, integration of the three dimensions will require that students be actively involved in the kinds of learning opportunities that classroom research suggests are important for 1 their understanding of science concepts [ 5], 2 their identities as learners of science [ 4344 ], and 3 their appreciation of scientific practices and crosscutting concepts [ 4546 ].
Several previous NRC committees working on topics related to science education have independently concluded that there is not sufficient evidence to make prescriptive recommendations about which approaches to science instruction are most effective for achieving particular learning goals [ 3 - 5 ]. Instruction throughout K education is likely to develop science proficiency if it provides students with opportunities for a range of scientific activities and scientific thinking, including, but not limited to: For example, researchers have studied classroom teaching interventions involving curriculum structures that support epistemic practices i.
Others have investigated curricular approaches and instructional practices that are matched to national standards [ 52 ] or are focused on model-based inquiry [ 24 ]. Taken together, this work suggests teachers need to develop the capacity to use a variety of approaches in science education. That report defined the following four strands of proficiency, which it maintained are interwoven in successful science learning: Knowing, using, and interpreting scientific explanations of the natural world.
Generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations. Understanding the nature and development of scientific knowledge.
Participating productively in scientific practices and discourse. Strand 1 includes the acquisition of facts, laws, principles, theories, and models of science; the development of conceptual structures that incorporate them; and the productive use of these structures to understand the natural world. Students grow in their understanding of particular phenomena as well as in their appreciation of the ways in which the construction of models and refinement of arguments contribute to the improvement of explanations [ 2955 ].
Strand 2 encompasses the knowledge and practices needed to build and refine models and to provide explanations conceptual, computational, and mechanistic based on scientific evidence. This strand includes designing empirical investigations and measures for data collection, selecting representations and ways of analyzing the resulting data or data available from other sourcesand using empirical evidence to construct, critique, and defend scientific arguments [ 4556 ].
Scientific knowledge is a particular kind of knowledge with its own sources, justifications, ways of dealing with uncertainties [ 40 ], and agreed-on levels of certainty. When students understand how scientific knowledge is developed over systematic observations across multiple investigations, how it is justified and critiqued on the basis of evidence, and how it is validated by the larger scientific community, the students then recognize that science entails the search for core explanatory constructs and the connections between them [ 57 ].
They come to appreciate that alternative interpretations of scientific evidence can occur, that such interpretations must be carefully scrutinized, and that the plausibility of the supporting evidence must be considered. Thus students ultimately understand, regarding both their own work and the historical record, that predictions or explanations can Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: For example, over time, students develop more sophisticated uses of scientific talk—which includes making claims and using evidence—and of scientific representations, such as graphs [ 58 ], physical models [ 59 ], and written arguments [ 6061 ].
They come to see themselves as members of a scientific community in which they test ideas, develop shared representations and models, and reach consensus. Students who see science as valuable and interesting and themselves as capable science learners also tend to be capable learners as well as more effective participants in science [ 8 ].
This new instruction of Circle geometry gave far better results as students were remembering most of the theorem since they discovered them on their own. Last but not least, the assessment is the measure of whether or not students have learnt what has been taught in the curriculum.
In my example above, it is the assessment that helped us determine that the students did not learn the circle theorems and so we had to use new instruction. Assessment is usually given in the form of standardized testing. Assessment, usually through standard testing is what happens first or what should happen first to diagnose what knowledge or skills is known. When I started teaching I received a class and was given the curriculum to follow however I found that students were not getting anything that they were taught and I could move on to a next topic in the curriculum.
As I questioned students throughout, I realized that students were lost because of an academic gap. They had not complete the prerequisite in their previous grade and so they were unable to grasp the new content. If I had diagnosed without assuming and moving on with the curriculum, I would save a lot of instructional time.
Assessment should occur during as a formative assessment to continuous assess learning throughout instruction. In teaching mathematics, I often use concept learning where students are given an explanation, examples and non-examples after which they engage in working sums on their own or in groups. Periodically during the lesson I stop students and have them share their answers. This allows me to know if everyone is on task, if everyone has understood and whether I have to revisit the instruction in a different way if students are making several errors.
Assessments are also given at the end of instruction which is called summative assessment. At this point, we refer to the curriculum as the assessment has determined whether or not the instruction was effective and whether the learners have gained the knowledge outlined in the curriculum. If they have learned, the curriculum then guides us to what next needs to be taught. If they have not, then the instruction is redesigned to better cater to the learners.
The Relationship Between Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment by Brittany Baxter on Prezi
This differentiated instruction must first be guided by differentiated curriculum. Henson stated that no single method can help all students learn. Cooperative learning is an ideal application of instruction of the differentiated curriculum as it allows each child to share and work at their level.
It also pushes students through the experiences of others to move from their ability to their zone of proximal development. I enjoy using cooperative learning when I can in my classroom. I can see the ease that it brings students who are not very confident in their mathematical ability to have the peer support. VanTassel-Baska also suggested discussion among peers as well as project based learning which is collaborative and caters to all exceptionalities. Being an advocate for differentiate learning mainly for gifted learners, VanTassel-Baska suggested advanced learning so that students are challenged, learning a second language, connected learning of skills and concepts across the subject areas and using biography as a tool.
I believe biography is a tool that can be used for all learners as understand and use their culture to learn and tie concepts together.
When curriculum and instruction is differentiated, evaluation must also be differentiated. Henson stated that the teacher may be pleased to assess advance students in nontraditional ways as the traditional testing may not show the progress that we are monitoring with the mixed ability students.
Suggest evaluations include oral discussions, one on one questions, term projects, portfolios, games. Therefore in designing lessons, we follow the goals from the curriculum which will push students to be motivated to achieve the outlined objectives as we instruct them and then reflect on instruction as we assess Baxter, Baxter identifies the instructional strategy of using hand on activities in the curriculum where students socialize with their peers and share ideas.