I want to be a tourist (Kapka Kassabova)
A list of 10 poems from Singapore that offer a glimpse into what Designed in for the Singapore Tourism Board, the Merlion is one of the The balance between public vs private relationship also comes into play as. Keywords: literary place, heritage tourism, cultural competence, fresh eyes places that inspired poems or books, to pay homage at a grave side or public is the reflexive relationship between those who develop and present sites and those. practices that represent the relationship between social/cultural oppression Brazil and tourists' and artists' impositions on the culture in their renderings of.
These performances formed an integral part of both public and private entertainment. By the end of the 16th century, a new generation of composers, including John DowlandWilliam ByrdOrlando GibbonsThomas Weelkes and Thomas Morley were helping to bring the art of Elizabethan song to an extremely high musical level.
Elizabethan poems and plays were often written in iambic meters, based on a metrical foot of two syllables, one unstressed and one stressed. However, much metrical experimentation took place during the period, and many of the songs, in particular, departed widely from the iambic norm. Edmund Spenser With the consolidation of Elizabeth's power, a genuine court sympathetic to poetry and the arts in general emerged.
This encouraged the emergence of a poetry aimed at, and often set in, an idealised version of the courtly world. Among the best known examples of this are Edmund Spenser 's The Faerie Queenewhich is effectively an extended hymn of praise to the queen, and Philip Sidney 's Arcadia. This courtly trend can also be seen in Spenser's Shepheardes Calender. This poem marks the introduction into an English context of the classical pastorala mode of poetry that assumes an aristocratic audience with a certain kind of attitude to the land and peasants.
The explorations of love found in the sonnets of William Shakespeare and the poetry of Walter Raleigh and others also implies a courtly audience. Classicism[ edit ] Virgil's Aeneid, Thomas Campion's metrical experiments, and Spenser's Shepheardes Calender and plays like Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra are all examples of the influence of classicism on Elizabethan poetry.
Translations of classical poetry also became more widespread, with the versions of Ovid 's Metamorphoses by Arthur Golding —67 and George Sandysand Chapman's translations of Homer 's Iliad and Odyssey c.
Jacobean and Caroline poetry: However, the boundaries between these three groups are not always clear and an individual poet could write in more than one manner. Shakespeare also popularized the English sonnetwhich made significant changes to Petrarch 's model. A collection of by sonnetsdealing with themes such as the passage of time, love, beauty and mortality, were first published in a quarto. John Milton —74 is considered one of the greatest English poets, and wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval.
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He is generally seen as the last major poet of the English Renaissance, though his most renowned epic poems were written in the Restoration period, including Paradise Lost Among the important poems Milton wrote during this period are L'Allegro; Il Penseroso; Comus a masque; and Lycidas The Metaphysical poets[ edit ] Main article: Metaphysical poets The early 17th century saw the emergence of this group of poets who wrote in a witty, complicated style.
The most famous of the Metaphysicals is probably John Donne. John Milton in his Comus falls into this group. The Metaphysical poets went out of favour in the 18th century but began to be read again in the Victorian era. Donne's reputation was finally fully restored by the approbation of T. Eliot in the early 20th century. Influenced by continental Baroqueand taking as his subject matter both Christian mysticism and eroticism, Donne's metaphysical poetry uses unconventional or "unpoetic" figures, such as a compass or a mosquito, to reach surprise effects.
For example, in "Valediction: Forbidding Mourning", one of Donne's Songs and Sonnets, the points of a compass represent two lovers, the woman who is home, waiting, being the centre, the farther point being her lover sailing away from her. But the larger the distance, the more the hands of the compass lean to each other: The paradox or the oxymoron is a constant in this poetry whose fears and anxieties also speak of a world of spiritual certainties shaken by the modern discoveries of geography and science, one that is no longer the centre of the universe.
The Cavalier poets[ edit ] Main article: Cavalier poets Another important group of poets at this time were the Cavalier poets.
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The Cavalier poets wrote in a lighter, more elegant and artificial style than the Metaphysical poets. They were an important group of writers, who came from the classes that supported King Charles I during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms — King Charles reigned from and was executed The Cavalier poets can be seen as the forerunners of the major poets of the Augustan erawho admired them greatly. They "were not a formal group, but all were influenced" by Ben Jonson.
For example, Robert Herrick was not a courtier, but his style marks him as a Cavalier poet. Cavalier works make use of allegory and classical allusions, and are influence by Latin authors HoraceCiceroand Ovid.
Restoration literature and Augustan poetry John Milton 's Paradise Losta story of fallen pride, was the first major poem to appear in England after the Restoration. The court of Charles II had, in its years in France, learned a worldliness and sophistication that marked it as distinctively different from the monarchies that preceded the Republic.
Even if Charles had wanted to reassert the divine right of kingship, the Protestantism and taste for power of the intervening years would have rendered it impossible. One of the greatest English poets, John Milton —74wrote during this period of religious and political instability.
He is generally seen as the last major poet of the English Renaissance, though his major epic poems were written in the Restoration period. Some of Milton's important poems, were written before the Restoration see above. His later major works include Paradise Regainedand Samson Agonistes Milton's works reflect deep personal convictions, a passion for freedom and self-determination, and the urgent issues and political turbulence of his day.
Writing in English, Latin, and Italian, he achieved international renown within his lifetime, and his celebrated Areopagiticawritten in condemnation of pre-publication censorship, is among history's most influential and impassioned defences of free speech and freedom of the press.
William Hayley 's biography called him the "greatest English author",  and he remains generally regarded "as one of the preeminent writers in the English language". Their satire was often written in defence of public order and the established church and government. However, writers such as Pope used their gift for satire to create scathing works responding to their detractors or to criticise what they saw as social atrocities perpetrated by the government.
Pope's "The Dunciad" is a satirical slaying of two of his literary adversaries Lewis Theobald, and Colley Cibber in a later versionexpressing the view that British society was falling apart morally, culturally, and intellectually. Not only did the poets aim for a polished high style in emulation of the Roman ideal, they also translated and imitated Greek and Latin verse resulting in measured rationalised elegant verse. Dryden translated all the known works of Virgil, and Pope produced versions of the two Homeric epics.
Nevertheless, print publication by women poets was still relatively scarce when compared to that of men, though manuscript evidence indicates that many more women poets were practicing than was previously thought. Disapproval of feminine "forwardness", however, kept many out of print in the early part of the period, and even as the century progressed women authors still felt the need to justify their incursions into the public sphere by claiming economic necessity or the pressure of friends.
Women writers were increasingly active in all genres throughout the 18th century, and by the s women's poetry was flourishing. In the past decades there has been substantial scholarly and critical work done on women poets of the long 18th century: The late 18th century[ edit ] Towards the end of the 18th century, poetry began to move away from the strict Augustan ideals and a new emphasis on the sentiment and feelings of the poet was established.
This trend can perhaps be most clearly seen in the handling of nature, with a move away from poems about formal gardens and landscapes by urban poets and towards poems about nature as lived in. These poets can be seen as paving the way for the Romantic movement.
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The Romantic movement[ edit ] William Wordsworth The last quarter of the 18th century was a time of social and political turbulence, with revolutions in the United StatesFranceIreland and elsewhere. It is unlikely attire for a Nobel laureate, but then he is not your average literary grandee. Revering English literature since his boyhood in Saint Luciahe takes his work seriously, himself less so.
As a director, he prefers to watch and listen, rather than lay down the law. We talk during a break. Walcott is accommodating, yet you are never quite at ease. At 82, a little deaf and forgetful, he has no time for foolishness. He thinks my first question — can a play written 30 years ago still say something about the coloniser and colonised? If it's any good, it lasts. His two grandfathers were white, his grandmothers black, so he can identify with both sides.
But he warns against seeing Pantomime only in political terms. But what I wanted to talk about more was the relationship between two artists from different cultures — basically the same kind of person, one working in music hall, the other in calypso.
There's an affinity between them. It's become very emphatic now, the idea of service. But you have to be careful it doesn't turn into slavery: Advertisements that have everybody grinning and insisting you have to make people happy, that's our job in life.
It's even worse that it's black people — the tourist board, the government — doing it to themselves. Why are they so little known? It's a little ridiculous. The division of black theatre and white theatre still goes on, and I don't wish to be a part of any one of those definitions. I'm a Caribbean writer. Whether happily or not doesn't matter. Many left to make their careers elsewhere, but Walcott chose to stay. I thought, 'You could be absorbed in it — it's so seductive, you might lose your own search for identity.
What is a Commonwealth writer? Is he less than somebody who's in the capital? I was infuriated by the semi-contempt in which Commonwealth writing was held. My mother taught Shakespeare and used to act. So I had that atmosphere at home. I knew very early what I wanted to do and I considered myself lucky to know that's what I wanted, even in a place like Saint Lucia where there was no publishing house and no theatre.
In the s and 70s, Walcott was not just patronised by much of the white establishment, but attacked by some black critics for having sold out because he used traditional literary forms.