beloved | The Perpetual Writer
relationship with the mother and ability to confront his history, no matter how painful, . community mothers in Beloved that insure survival for Sethe and Denver. victim/survivor of violence, tells her story to counselors or psychologists. In Toni Morrison's Beloved, in a world where slaves are constantly subjected . white men's babies names, Sethe's mother asserts her authority over the fruit of her loins. . counseling, “[I]f I was you I'd stick to Jenny Whitlow. in the relationship (although he is presumably dead or otherwise absent) because has adapted to. In , Margaret Garner, like Beloved's main character, Sethe, escaped with .. Men and women conceive of themselves and their relationships to others in it is both “the source of the malady with which it is concerned and the therapy it.
Does love conquer all? But Jane Eyre seems to manage it despite the failings of the love of her life: Best sex scene ever? This is a toughie. I read a lot of romance with varying degrees of sexiness in each, but I have to say the honor goes to I kid you not Atlas Shrugged. No, not the scene that shows a predilection of the main character for rough sex. Do you think sex scenes are appropriate in Young Adult novels? The important factors are the handling of the matter: I have no idea. Part of this block is directly related to my most recent readings that have been quite depressing.
Stellar prose and fully fleshed out characters. The books have gotta at least have one of those to carry it. Psychologically defunct characters and a completely unsound philosophical point. Also — lots of pop culture references. A review on that work will be coming up shortly.
One is about the sexual tension and engages the body of the reader first, the other engages the heart first. What makes a love story realistic? Freud s psychoanalytic theory of personality is presented as an example of a psychodynamic approach to the study of human behavior. The psychodynamic orientation holds that unconscious mental conflicts control the person s behavior. Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, based on his psychodynamic concepts almost entirely on extensive clinical observation of neurotic patients as well as self analysis Hjelle and Ziegler On the other hand, Berry1 says that psychoanalysis is a psychological system and method of therapy for personality disturbance.
Hjelle and Ziegler86 state that the term of psychoanalysis has three meanings, 1 a theory of personality and psychopathology, 2 a method of therapy for personality disturbances, and 3 a technique for investigating and individual s unconscious thoughts and feelings. Freud in Pervin71 claimed, Psychoanalysts aims and achieves nothing more than the discovery of theunconscious in mental life. Basically, psychoanalytic theory in Freud s view is a psychic life, which can be described in aware and unaware.
The basics and principles of psychoanalysis theory in Freud s view are as follow. The topographical model For a long time in the theoretical development of psychoanalysis, Freud employed a topographical model of personality organization. According to this model, psychic life can be represented by three levels of consciousness the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious.
Taken together, Freud used this mental map of the mind to describe the degree to which mental events such as thoughts and fantasies vary in accessibility to awareness. There are three basics in the topographical model, those are: The conscious The conscious level consists of whatever sensations and experiences that is aware of at a given moment in time.
Freud insisted in Hjelle and Ziegler87 that only a small part of mental life thoughts, perceptions, feelings, memories is contained in the realm of consciousness. His example of consciousness occurs when someone is beginning to get hungry.
The preconscious The preconscious domain sometimes is called available memory that encompasses all experiences which are not conscious at the moment which can easily be retrieved into awareness either spontaneously or with a minimum effort Hjelle and Ziegler For instance, under the influence of tertian therapeutic techniques, unconscious material may emerge into the preconscious and from there it becomes conscious.
The examples include memories of everything you did last Saturday night, all the towns you ever lived in, your favorite foods etc. The unconscious The deepest and major stratum of the human mind is the unconscious. It is the store house for primitive instinctual drives plus emotions and memories that are so threatening to the conscious mind that they have been repressed, or unconsciously pushed into unconscious mind.
Hjelle and Ziegler87 give examples of material that might be found in unconscious include a forgotten trauma in child hood, hidden feelings of hostility toward a parent etc. Hall30 says the unconscious is the area of our experience that is not normally accessible to us either because its contents were never conscious traces or events that happened before we had language, when we were infants or because its contents have been repressed, or pushed out of awareness, because they are in some way threatening us.
For example a woman may forget that her friend is chronically late for appointments until each time it happens because she is afraid if she expresses her anger, the friend will become angry too. The structure of personality The theory of personality that Freud has formulated consists of three important systems: If they work in harmony and utility someone will have a good personality, spirit, motivation and move 22 Leksema Vol 1 No 1 Januari-Juni efficiently and sophisticatedly in the environment.
However, it often happens when someone has past experience that becomes an obstacle for the present and future because the three systems do not work in harmony. The three important systems of personality according to Freud are as follows: The id Taylor, Sluckin, Davies, Reason, Thomson and Colmansay the id is the product of heredity and is the instinctual level of response.
It is the main source of mental energy and is concerned with self-preservation, reproduction and aggression against threats. The id comes from the Latin word for it and refers exclusively to the primitive, instinctive, and inherited aspects of personality Hjelle and Ziegler, The id functions entirely in the unconscious and is closely tied to instinctual biological urges such as to eat, to sleep, to defecate and to copulate that energize the behavior.
The id is the oldest and original structure of the mind. It expresses the primary principles of human life. Developmentally the id is the oldest portion of personality. Freud in Monte99 states, The id obeys the inexorable pleasure principle. The id operates on the principle that whatever brings satisfaction to a want, desire, or wishful impulse is good; whatever hinders of frustrates such satisfaction is bad.
Because the id is ruled by primary thinking process, condensations and displacements of its energy are not only possible for the id but also they are in inevitable result of the id s striving for satisfaction without due regard for the goodness, evilness, realness, or appropriateness of its objects. The irrational, instinctual and unknown unconsciouses are part of the psyche.
Freud calls them as the 7 Sethe s Mercy Killing in Morrison s Beloved id and the id wishes only to fulfill the urges of the pleasure principle. BresslerFeist25 says id is the core of personality and completely unconscious to the individual are the psychical region.
Here, it means the id is unable to distinguish between objective reality and subjective perception and the id for adult cannot differentiate the objective reality of a juicy steak from a mental image of one. The ego The ego is those activities of the brain which express themselves in intelligent actions. TaylorThe ego is often threatened by impulses from the id as well as by external dangers in the environment and when this happens anxiety occurs. Freud regarded anxiety as a regular and powerful source of pain which played a basic role in the organization of the person.
Hjelle and Ziegler88 state that the ego is the decision making component of the psychic apparatus that seeks to express and gratify the desires of the id in accordance with the constraints imposed by the outside world. The ego is the executive of personality and the seat of intellectual process and problem solving. According to Freudian theory, ego defense mechanisms are activated when an individual confronts serious anxiety and emotional conflict. Among the most common self-defense mechanisms are as follows: In repression, an unacceptable or threatening thought or impulse is driven from conscious awareness.
Such as when children have been taught that aggression and masturbation are bad they may repress knowledge of their own involvement in such practices. By repression they avoid conscious feelings of anxiety and guilt Zanden, People use the mechanism of projection attribute to someone else their own impulses or acts that are too painful to acknowledge.
Projection is the way to reject guilty feeling by blaming somebody else or others. For instance, angry children who have learned that rage is socially unacceptable often project their aggression onto a playmate and justify their own behavior as self-defense for instance they say, He started it Zanden The expression of an instinctual impulse is redirected from a more threatening person or object to a less threatening one.
A common example is the child who is scolded by her parents and proceeds to hit her little sister, kick her dog etc. Hjelle and ZieglerAt times people protect themselves from unpleasant reality by simply not perceiving it. They refuse to acknowledge its existence. For instance, a child with hostile mother may deny that she hostile and rejecting. Instead, the child insists that the mother is kind, loving person. The device of denial spares people the emotional pain that would follow from recognizing the truth.
In other side, mother may deny that she is angry to her children because she loves her children Zanden In sublimation, unacceptable behavior is repressed and reemerges in a socially acceptable manner.
Such as, a coin collector is Leksema Vol 1 No 1 Januari-Juni 8 Rina Husnaini Febriyanti sublimating a desire to retain feces, a boxing fan is sublimating aggression, and an artist is sublimating sexual energies. Individuals who are under stress may invoke behavior that was characteristic of an earlier stage of development.
For example, six years old child who regresses to thumbsucking or bed- wetting when confronted with a new baby in the home. Woman who ever had pain in the past can lock herself in her imagination world Zanden People rationalize by finding a convincing reason for doing something that would otherwise be viewed as unacceptable.
For instance, a girl who wants to break with her boy friend but she feels guilty because her boyfriend is good to her. She can go ahead and make the break if she can justify it through rationalization her boyfriend will be better off if he can get to know some other girls Zanden, In reaction formation, people protect themselves against recognizing aspects of their personalities that they would find unacceptable by developing the opposite behavior.
For instance, woman who has masculine personality will cover herself from her feminism as the result she will become somebody else Zanden The super ego The super ego is the last component of personality to be developed and represents an internalized version of society s norms and standards of behavior Hjelle and Ziegler24 Leksema Vol 1 No 1 Januari-Juni.
The super ego results from the child s prolonged dependence upon parents. It makes its formal appearance when the child is said to know right from wrong, good from bad, moral from immoral. The super ego may consider an individualized reflection of society s collective conscience although the child s perceptions of the real values of society may be distorted.
The super ego attempts to inhibit completely any id impulse that would be condemned by society, also tries to guide the person toward absolute perfection in thought, word, and deed. In short, it tries to persuade the ego that the pursuit of perfectionistic goals is better than pursuit of realistic ones.
According to Taylorthe super ego is a refinement of the ego function. It defines the values accepted by a person as a result of identifying with parents in childhood.
- SETHE S MERCY KILLING IN MORRISON S BELOVED
The super ego is also based on social experience. It can be as irrational and impulsive as the id in prompting responses which threaten the ego and provoke anxiety. The ego must control and refine the promptings of the super ego and produce sophisticated and rational mural values out of cruder material. Conflicts can occur in these processes which are as stressful as those from the functioning of the id system. Freud meant to emphasize that once the superego was established within the personality to be fed by the energy of renounced id impulses.
From the point of view of instinctual control, or morality, it may be said of the id that it is totally non-moral of the ego that strives to be moral and of the superego that it can be super-moral and then become as cruel as only the id can be Monte The super ego, therefore, is structured both conscious and 9 Sethe s Mercy Killing in Morrison s Beloved unconscious components and, as a moral or ethical agency. It functions both consciously and unconsciously.
That is to say, the super ego has relations with both the ego and the id. The super ego has two subsystems: The conscience, results from experience with punishment for improper behavior. The ego ideal develops when a child is rewarded for proper behavior Feist A primitive conscience comes into existence when the child conforms to parental standard out of fear of lasso love or approval.
Lateral theseideals are internalized through identification with mother and father. The theory of dreams Dreams have been a source of fascination for centuries but it is only comparatively recently that they have become the subject of scientific attention.
Freud in Taylorgave the study of special dreaming impetus by assigning dreams a crucial role in the preservation of sleep and by claiming that the analysis of dream content was a powerful instrument for the exploration of the unconscious.
Freud in Danartoexplains that there are some materials which make somebody has a dream, they are: Past experience The expression of experience of the day before can induce dreams. A dream tends to show the impressions or experiences of the past.
For instance the dreamer represents a beautiful girl in his dream whom he saw in the meeting a few days before.
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Ignored experience A dream may work as a process of selection according of principles which exist in the outside of one s consciousness. Here, the dreamer will not remember the essential experience but exactly, he will remember the subordinate or trifling facts and they are often ignored.
Childhood experience A dream saves the impressions from one s childhood age and illuminates in detail from the period of life. The dreamer will remember a good or bad experience in his or her childhood. Then unconsciously the experiences exist in his or her dream. The notion of mercy killing Mercy killing is the action or an instance of killing somebody out of pity, e g because they are in severe pain Hornby This action can happen to someone whose close relation is in suffering because of pain.
Mercy killing can be called as euthanasia Greek easy death. Active euthanasia or mercy killing is putting to death of a person because of preventing unavoidable suffering. Euthanasia boards were created to make decisions about person said to be suffering from incurable disease or who were in some other way a burden on the state Grolier Academic Encyclopedia.
There is a different opinion about mercy killing such as Hauser says in his essay: Just as an individual has the right to life, he has the right to death, as he commented on the issue of euthanasia. He continued, from the moment an individual is born, he strives to obtain as much pleasure as possible from life with as little suffering as possible.
For this reason he should have the right to decide on matters concerning his life and death with full autonom. Somehow, there are many different opinions that appear for considering about mercy killing and this happens until the present, especially, thinking about the positive function of mercy killing. In fact it is still done for some reasons and done by someone who wishes that after doing a mercy killing Leksema Vol 1 No 1 Januari-Juni 10 Rina Husnaini Febriyanti he or she will get freedom from the pain or horror life.
Ratnastates that qualitative method is a descriptive analysis whose characteristics of the content almost give full attention to the meaning and message. This method is more mainly to the analysis process rather than to the result of the analysis, therefore the meaning is always changing. Different from Barelson in Bautista23 who says qualitative analysis is more likely to take the materials as a whole on the assumption that meanings reside in the total impression, qualitative analysis is not in the atomistic combination of measurable units.
The basic content unit of analysis is likely to be more complex in qualitative than in quantitative. Quantitative analysis tends to break complex materials down into their components so that they can be reliably measured.
Qualitative analysis is not in numerical measurements. In qualitative analysis is more often centering in events that have meaning to be interpreted. The process of collecting data is considering the substantial of the content, which is observed. The process of this research study is not only based on the interpretation but also the comprehension of the data.
In comprehension of the data need an approach and a method. Therefore, this research study uses the method qualitative content analysis. The data were analyzed by using the content analysis technique. Endraswarasays that content analysis is a hidden message in phenomenology communication, whose content is property for the readers. He says three basics of the content analysis are objective, systematic, and generalization. Objective is held by 26 Leksema Vol 1 No 1 Januari-Juni theories; systematic because it uses transparent steps; and generalization because of all about the content to get the inference.
Meanwhile, Krippendorff21 states that content analysis is a research technique for making replicable and valid inferences from data to their context. As a research technique, content analysis involves specialized procedures for processing scientific data.
This research technique purposes to provide knowledge, new insights, a representation and practical guide to action. The data of the research are events whether words, phrases, or sentences that occur in Beloved that was written by Toni Morrison.
SETHE S MERCY KILLING IN MORRISON S BELOVED - PDF
She describes the struggle of life through the main character. The struggle of the main character are living in slavery place, running away from slavery place, as a single parent and protecting her children from slave holders. The struggle of life leads the main character to behave bravely to solve her problem that is a mercy killing to her daughter.
It occurs because of many causes that lead her to do it. The main source of the research is Beloved by Toni Morrison who is an American African whose novel got a Pulitzer Prize for Fiction inbecause of her power in giving messages to the readers in America.
The focus of the research is events, which show a mercy killing through the main character Sethe who deals with her problems of her life. The main instrument in this research is the researcher herself. The researcher takes the role as the designer, data location, data analysis, interpreter, and the researcher also uses data cards, related documents and computer to help her work with data.
The data were taken from the words, phrases, clauses, and sentences in the novel which related to the case of Sethe s behaviors. The researcher read the texts comprehensively and 11 Sethe s Mercy Killing in Morrison s Beloved interpretively according to the needs to find the information that is appropriate to the research objectives, and then she made notes of all the data collected into data sheets.
The data that are available in units of language are classified according to their relevance. To classify the data, the researcher uses 15 x 11 cm cards which contain units of data, page number, data number and the category.
In this step, the data of the study are used to verify and clarify the findings and discussion. The data sources which are applied in these research findings are from the evidences in the novel Beloved and they are called as data analysis. Data analysis is reflected into data cards that they show some evidences that are needed. Data cards are classified into three topics. The first topic is the causes of Sethe s mercy killing, this topic consists of four subtopics those are: Sethe is an exslave woman; Sethe is an African American; To get a better place; and To get freedom forever.
The second topic is the way of Sethe s mercy killing. The last topic which is discussed in this chapter is the impacts of Sethe s mercy killing. This topic has four subtopics, those are: The Causes of Sethe s Mercy Killing The researcher divides the causes of Sethe s mercy killing into four parts as follows: Sethe is an exslave woman; Sethe is an African American; to get a better place; and to get freedom forever.
Sethe is an exslave woman In slavery time life was not easy. This also happened to Sethe as a woman who was sent to the slavery place Sweet Home since she was a teenager until she married with Halle and had four children.
Sweet Home was a place for slaves who were treated inhumanely by slave holder. The slave who stayed in Sweet Home would choose to run away from that house because they could not stand with the treatment of slave holders. Sethe ever lived in that place but she succeeded running away from Sweet Home. How come everybody run off from Sweet Home can t stop talking about it? Look like if it was so sweet you would have stayed It wasn t sweet and it sure wasn t home Morrison, She was pregnant when she had to run away because she could not stand anymore with the treatments of white school teacher who treated her like an animal rather than like a human.
The day my baby was born. You had that baby did you?
Beloved: Sethe and Beloved's Relationship
Never thought you d make it. Couldn t be waiting. She lowered her head and thought, as he did, how unlikely it was that she had made it. And if hadn t been for that girl looking for velvet, she never would have Morrison8. Sethe s condition was very weak at that time. She was afraid of slave holders if they could catch her, moreover she was pregnant. In her mind was only run and run.
Her conscious level of her past experience influences her life basically in her personality. It can be proved that she could not forget her past experience. Her memorizing of her past experience leads her mind to form self-concept that she did not want to get her past experience anymore. It can be said that she got the trauma because of her past experience.
Such as, Sethe bore her baby almost by herself even though there was a white girl helped her it was not easy for her. All by yourself too. He was proud of her and annoyed by her. Proud she had done it; annoyed that she had not needed Halle or him in the doing.
Not all by myself. A white girl helped me. Then she helped herself too, God bless her Morrison8. Psychologically, it is not good for a teenager s mental who was a slave. Sethe s childhood almost was spent in slavery place. She was too young for learning a life with the wildness there. Therefore, her personality concept is abnormal than other children in a normal condition and situation. Sethe s background is different from other people.
It makes Sethe s view is also different with other people. Sethe always remembered when she and her friends six Pauls they are Paul A to Paul F lived in Sweet Home The boy had done what Sweet Home had, what working like an ass and living like a dog had not Morrison, Moreover, Sethe saw her mother was hung in front of her eyes and this influenced her life so much. She didn t understand and she felt unimpressed when she saw it. Hung by the time they cut her down nobody could tell whether she had a circle and across or not, least of all me and I did look Morrison Sethe always memorized the treatment of slave holder to her mother.
She brought her past memory into her present of her life. It means that she never forget her past memory to continue her life.Couples Therapy with Juan - David Lopez
Sethe s suffering did not end, it always came continuously even after she had been married by Halle. This marriage, she hoped, was a good shine to go ahead for having a future but in fact she didn t get at all about the future. She was raped in front of her husband when both of them as slaves in Sweet Home.