B12 and folic acid relationship problems

A Study of the Prevalence of Serum Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Deficiency in Western Maharashtra

b12 and folic acid relationship problems

Specifically, B12 and folic acid (or folate) are making headlines for their disease and B-vitamins is homocysteine levels, but the relationship is. Anemia isn't always caused by a lack of iron. Not getting enough folate (folic acid) can harm your health, too. What relationship do vitamin B12 and folic acid share? grave symptoms, such as anemia, depression, stomach and/or intestinal problems and weight loss.

It is involved as 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate methionine in the methylation process where the methyl group is transferred to homocysteine to form methionine in the presence of methionine synthase enzyme.

Methionine synthase is one of the only two enzymes known to be Bdependent enzymes. This process depends on both folic acid as well as vitamin B This reaction needs ATP and vitamin B12 and also the presence of methionine adenosyl transferase [Figure 1].

b12 and folic acid relationship problems

Methionine is also known to be essential for the formation of collagen that is involved in the formation of skin, nails, and connective tissues, and low methionine level has negative effects in these processes and functions.

Thymidylate synthase is involved in catalyzing the transfer of formaldehyde from folate to dUMP in order to form dTMP. Thymidylate synthase It is an enzyme that plays a role in the replication of cells and tissues. From this cycle, the role of folate can be linked to cancer. Thymidylate synthase is a metabolic poison that is involved in causing functional folate deficiency, and body's cells grow rapidly as a result of increase in DNA synthesis.

Many anti-cancer drugs act indirectly by inhibiting DHFR or directly by inhibiting thymidylate synthase.

A Study of the Prevalence of Serum Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Deficiency in Western Maharashtra

Purine has many important roles in cell growth, division, and development, since it is considered to be along with the pyrimidine base of the DNA helix. In case of folate deficiency, there is an impairment of functions of purine, which means impairment in production of DNA, and leads to many problems inside the body, since DNA is the basis of every process. DNA defects affect each part of the body, i. Megaloblastic anemia is described as presence of large-sized red blood cells than normal.

It results from the inhibition of DNA synthesis within red blood cell production. Since DNA synthesis becomes impaired, the cell cycle cannot progress and cell continues to grow without division, which presents as macrocytosis. It can be a result of vitamin B12 deficiency and also due to trapping folate, preventing it from doing its normal function. This defect is caused by thymidylate synthesis defective with deoxyuridine triphosphate enlargement.

Megaloblastic anemia leads to impairment of RBC, painful tingling of the hands and feet, gastrointestinal problems e. Also, formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, which is known as domain of C1 tetrahydrofolate synthetase gene, has been shown that it is linked to a high risk of having neural tube defect.

The most well-known type of this defect is "spina bifida," which can lead to many problems and issues, e. According to the spina bifida association, it can also lead to learning disabilities, gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, depression, urinary and bowel dysfunction, tendonitis, and allergies. Vitamin B12 commonly known as cyanocobalamin is the most chemically complex of all the vitamins.

The structure of vitamin B12 is based on a corrin ring, which is similar to the porphyrin ring found in heme, chlorophyll, and cytochrome and has two of the pyrrole rings directly bonded. Cyanocobalamin cannot be made by plants or animals; bacteria and archaea are the only types of organisms that have the enzymes required for the synthesis of cyanocobalamin.

b12 and folic acid relationship problems

Higher plants do not concentrate cyanocobalamin from the soil, and so are poor sources of the substance, as compared with animal tissues. Vitamin B12 is naturally found in foods including meat especially liver and shellfisheggs, and milk products. Infants adequate intake months: The enzyme methionine synthase needs methylcobalamin as a cofactor. This enzyme is normally involved in the conversion of the amino acid homocysteine into methionine, while methionine, in turn, is required for DNA methylation.

This conversion is an important step in the extraction of energy from proteins and fats. In addition, succinyl CoA is necessary for the production of hemoglobin which is the substance that carries oxygen in red blood cells.

In case of vitamin B12 deficiency, the body does not have the ability to produce methionine, which leads to many problems. Also, the body does not have the ability to produce S-adenosyl methionine which is known as "SAM" product. These impairments lead to many problems and issues. The body loses its ability to produce the TCA cycle intermediate, succinyl CoA, which will lead to an impairment of TCA cycle as there is reduced conversion of succinate to fumarate, malate, and to the end product of the cycle, which is responsible for providing small amount of energy before going to electron transport chain which is responsible of high energy production.

When the fatty acid is oxidized into propionyl CoA, the role of succinyl CoA appears which is known as succinyl CoA precursor, that is then converted to pyruvate and enters the gluconeogenesis cycle. The most common disease caused as a result of B12 deficiency is pernicious anemia. Pernicious anemia Pernicious anemia is a type of anemia with the term "anemia" that usually refers to a condition in which the blood has a lower than normal number of red blood cells.

In pernicious anemia, the body has no ability to make enough healthy red blood cells because it does not have enough vitamin B Without enough vitamin B12, the red blood cells do not divide normally and are too large, and they may have trouble getting out of the bone marrow.

b12 and folic acid relationship problems

Not having enough red blood cells to carry oxygen to the body may give a feel of being tired and weak. Severe or long-lasting pernicious anemia can damage the heart, brain, and other organs in the body.

Pernicious anemia can also cause other problems such as nerve damage, neurological problems such as memory lossand digestive tract problems. People who have pernicious anemia also may be at higher risk for weakened bone strength and stomach cancer.

b12 and folic acid relationship problems

Hyperhomocysteinemia is a medical condition that is characterized by an abnormally elevated level of homocysteine in the blood. It increases the risk of developing vein and artery diseases. Elevated homocysteine levels might also be a risk factor for the development of many other diseases such as heart attack and stroke, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. Vitamin B12 deficiency can also be involved in megaloblastic anemia and neural tube defects, as mentioned above in relation to folic acid.

Neutrophils can be hypersegmented, and megakaryocytes are abnormal. On the molecular level in the megaloblastic cells, the maturation of nuclei is delayed while cytoplasmic development is normal. Megaloblastosis is a generalized disorder because non-hematopoietic cells such as GI and uterine cervical mucosal cells can also have megaloblastic features. The etiology of megaloblastic anemias is diverse, but a common basis is impaired DNA synthesis.

The most common causes of megaloblastosis are cobalamin vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies. The most well-known causes of cobalamin deficiency are pernicious anemia, failure of absorption of cobalamin in the terminal ileum, effects of medications e.

The development of megaloblastic anemia is usually insidious; therefore, patients are often relatively asymptomatic because they have had time to adjust to the marked fall in hemoglobin levels. There are a number of sporadic reports in the literature of compromised cellular immune status in patients with cobalamin and folate deficiencies affecting neutrophil functions.

How do vitamin B12 and folic acid interact with each other? | Vitamin B12 - Sharecare

We hereby aim to find out the prevalence of these deficiencies in general population and correlate the findings with the symptomatology. Materials and Methods The present study is a cross-sectional observation study carried out on patients seeking medical attention on outpatient and inpatient basis in the medicine department of a teaching institute of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University, Karad. Large number of patients were studied, and out of them, patients were selected on basis of below mentioned symptoms viz.

Exclusion criteria Normocytic normochromic peripheral blood smear Only microcytic peripheral blood smear History of bleeding from any site Other obvious structural and metabolic diseases.

The assay uses releasing agent Sodium Hydroxide to release vitamin B22 from the endogenous binding proteins in the samples and prevents rebinding after the solid phase is added to the sample. The folic acid levels were determined using ACS: Folate in the patient's sample competes with acridinum ester-labeled folate in the Lite Reagent for a limited amount of biotin-labeled folate binding protein.