The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Quotes by Mark Twain
Aunt Polly is a kindhearted, rather simple old woman who takes her responsibility for Tom and his half-brother Sid very seriously. Employing whacks on the head. JANUARY 5, THE TOM-TOM, E. C. J. C., Decatur, Miss. In the high school di- vision, Polly Pearson and Tommy Joe Buntyn rated the highest .. The bride, given in marriage by her father, was radiant in a gown of white bridal satin . In relation to the theories presented, we define cyber-identity and we give Users can doodle with their kids when they are away from home, play poker with their of avesisland.info (avesisland.info members/tomtom/ comments/): i Miss you!; CHAPTER II • Cyber‐Language Socialisation and Online.
Nor did residential patterns yet conform to a rigid color line. In many sections of the city blacks and whites lived in close proximity in what were known as "mixed neighborhoods. That Gillam, a Howard University alumnus who had also attended Yale, spoke fluent German undoubtedly facilitated the friendship. Still himself grew up in one of the city's mixed neighborhoods, and his playmates were white boys. In fact, his best childhood friend was white, the son of a railroad engineer.
But Still, unlike his white friend, did not have access to the city's public library, and beginning in the two could not sit together on the streetcar. Contributing significantly to the shape of the new order in race relations in Arkansas was the flamboyant, freewheeling Jeff Davis, who after serving a term as an active, highly visible attorney general, occupied the governorship from to Few other southern political demagogues of the time were more adept than Davis in exploiting the racial fears of whites.Tom Sawyer - Aunt Polly
Embracing the myths of white supremacy, he invoked incredibly crude racist rhetoric that often appalled those whites whom he called "the high collared roosters" of urban Little Rock but that made him the darling of rural "rednecks," a term that he used as one of endearment.
Inwhen Still was eight years old, the state legislature in session a short distance from where he lived enacted measures that appeared to translate Governor Davis's racist rhetoric into legal reality. One measure required the segregation of state and county prisoners. Because the statute did not apply to city prisoners, Little Rock continued for some years what has been described as its "topsy-turvy arrangements" in dealing with black and white inmates in the city jail.
More relevant to Still's family and most of the city's African Americans was a law requiring segregation of the races on streetcars, a measure that encountered opposition from blacks and some whites. Little Rock's most prominent black citizens vigorously protested the law and organized a boycott of the streetcars.
One can easily imagine that the proud, fiercely independent Carrie Still was deeply offended by the Jim Crow streetcar law and participated in the "We Walk League. Neither the boycott by African Americans nor the grumbling of some whites failed to deter the implementation of the streetcar law. Racially mixed neighborhoods persisted as long as Still resided in the city. The city's police force continued to employ African Americans at least until Smith, a well-to-do black dentist with an office on Main Street, possessed "a large and lucrative practice among the wealthy white class.
Gibbs and John E. Elected municipal judge in Little Rock inGibbs was reputedly "the first Negro elected to such office in the United States. He served as receiver of public monies in the United States Land Office in Little Rock from until and constantly waged war on the lily-white forces in the party. Shepperson, whom Carrie Still married in As a clerk in the Railway Mail Service, Shepperson had an income that placed him among the city's most affluent blacks.
During the decade preceding the enactment of the two segregation measures innew election laws had rendered blacks politically powerless and eliminated them from public office. The "separate coach" law of had required racial segregation of railroads a dozen years prior to the streetcar law.
The new order in race relations prompted them to accelerate the withdrawal into a world of their own that was separate and distinct from the society of whites.
The result was a more formalized dual society in Little Rock. Washington, the premier spokesman for African Americans, by launching their own business enterprises that increasingly catered to a black clientele. In fact, Little Rock had a thriving chapter of the National Negro Business League, an organization created in and headed by Washington until his death fifteen years later. InGibbs, a loyal disciple of the Tuskegean, launched the Capital Savings Bank, the second black-owned bank in Arkansas.
The bank thrived for five years but failed, for various reasons, in the wake of the Panic of Other enterprises lasted much longer and even expanded beyond Little Rock.
Keatts, and a dozen other prominent individuals.
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Much more than a fraternal order of "men of good character regardless of occupation or class," the Mosaic Templars operated an insurance company, a loan association, and a newspaper. It also owned extensive real estate throughout Arkansas. By the mids the organization had assets of a million dollars and one hundred thousand members in twenty-six states and six foreign countries.
Just as young William Grant Still left Little Rock for college inthe Mosaic Templars headquarters building, a three-and-a-half-story brick structure, opened on the corner of Ninth and Broadway streets.
Blacks had long been present in the vicinity of Ninth Street, but their number vastly increased after Emancipation in The Union Army constructed a hodgepodge of log shanties in the area to accommodate the freed slaves who crowded into Little Rock.
By the turn of the century, black-owned businesses, mostly small, service-oriented enterprises, had substantially increased on Ninth Street, interspersed among establishments operated by people of Italian, Irish, and German descent.
Not only did the street include the headquarters of the Mosaic Templars and other fraternal and mutual aid societies, it also had an assortment of tailors, grocers, barbers, boot makers, jewelers, confectioners, and other small businesses. Coffin, a graduate of Meharry Medical College and for some years the only black registered pharmacist in Arkansas. Although Coffin made his living as a druggist, his first love was poetry.
Black professionals—physicians, attorneys, clergymen—were found in this city-within-a-city. As one authority has observed, here African Americans could find everything from medical services and spiritual nourishment to Saturday night entertainment and excitement.
Blacks often referred to Ninth Street as "the Line," because it functioned as the demarcation between black and white Little Rock. Despite his boast about the absence of race friction "of any kind," Bush did not deny the existence of a racially dual society in which "the Negro has his own churches, his own schools, his own secret societies, and his own social functions. Cohn, in fact, did assure black consumers that they were welcome and would be shown "uniform courtesy.
Washington's chief lieutenant in Arkansas and who subscribed to his accommodationist, self-help philosophy. When Washington visited Little Rock in November at Bush's invitation and delivered an address at the Opera House, he had an opportunity to observe the degree to which his host and other blacks in the city had succeeded in implementing his self-help philosophy. His visit was "the occasion of a public holiday by the Negro people," thousands of whom crowded into Little Rock to get a glimpse of "the Sage of Tuskegee.
As elsewhere in the South, the black church was a multifunctional institution that served as an agency of education, social control, and economic cooperation and as a refuge from a hostile environment. Of the thirty-nine black churches in Little Rock inseventeen were affiliated with various Baptist denominations and fifteen were Methodist, including African Methodist Episcopal, African Methodist Episcopal Zion, and Colored Methodist Episcopal congregations.
Other blacks in the city worshiped at Protestant Episcopal, Catholic, Presbyterian, Congregationalist, and Holiness churches. The largest black church was the First Baptist with a membership of 1, and a sanctuary that seated 3, followed by Bethel A. Church with a seating capacity of 1, According to Bush, the public school system was "the pride of the city. This school, first known as Union, was moved and renamed Capitol Hill School in Moved again two years later, it was known as the Mifflin W.
The high school was, in many respects, the centerpiece of black education in Little Rock and was undoubtedly the best black public school in the state. Although it included a vocational department, the emphasis was on a college-preparatory, classical curriculum that included literature, foreign languages, science, and social science taught by a highly qualified faculty.
Among these was William Pickens of the class of who graduated, Phi Beta Kappa, from Yale and later won fame as an educator, writer, and official of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Both returned to Little Rock, one to become a teacher and later a businessman and the other to practice medicine in the city for a half century. Whites in Little Rock, no less than those elsewhere in the United States, were rarely inclined to think in terms of a stratified black society across the color line.
Reluctant to move beyond vague generalities about the black class structure, whites tended to classify African Americans as "good Negroes" or "bad Negroes" or to designate, for one reason or another, certain individuals and families as exceptional. Even though whites obviously knew that not all blacks were alike, no matter how often they voiced such a sentiment, they undoubtedly would have expressed dismay, even disbelief, at any suggestion that a well-defined class hierarchy existed in Little Rock's black community.
Such a suggestion, on the contrary, would have come as no revelation to William Grant Still's parents. Income, education, occupation, and other indices traditionally used to define the white class structure have proved to be inadequate in explaining the social hierarchy that evolved among African Americans in the decades after Emancipation. More subjective considerations related to historical experience and traditions and to a color-conscious, dominant society figured significantly in determining the contours of the black class structure.
Much of what accounted for status and prestige in the black community had no counterpart in white society, because status and prestige among blacks were in large part bound up with their experience with slavery—their particular place in the slave system, their role in opposing it, and the extent to which their families had been free from it.
In parts of the antebellum South, especially along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, there developed elites made up of free mulatto families who in some cases were slave owners. Such elites as flourished in Charleston, Savannah, Pensacola, Mobile, and New Orleans did not exist in antebellum Arkansas or its capital city.
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Quotes
Smith, and the Ish and Gillam families, who settled in the city during or shortly after Reconstruction. A member of the city's postwar black elite whose forebears enjoyed the status of "privileged" slaves in antebellum Little Rock recalled that "class distinction" existed among slaves "perhaps to a greater extent than among white people.
Reflecting their concerns with social ritual, E. Woods, the principal of a black school in Little Rock, lectured widely on etiquette and in produced a full-length etiquette guide, The Negro in Etiquette: This group formed the lower class in the black community. As elsewhere at the time, the city's black class structure resembled a pyramid: The black upper class in Little Rock always exhibited a degree of flexibility that allowed admission to those who, unable to claim old-resident status, possessed other essential qualifications.
Although wealth was a stratifier, it alone did not ensure one a place at the top of the class structure.
William Grant Still
For example, John E. To a remarkable degree the city's black upper class constituted an educational elite, composed of those possessing a tradition of literacy or advanced education.
Various members of the Ish, Rector, Gillam, and Andrews families were identified at some point in their careers with either the colleges or the public schools in the city. Conspicuous among this educational elite was Charlotte Andrews Stephens, an Oberlin graduate who was a teacher in Little Rock for seventy years. She, along with Mary Speight, the wife of the detective, Marietta Ish, Carrie Still Shepperson, and various other teachers and school administrators, possessed enormous prestige and influence in black Little Rock.
Although members of the city's black upper class were found in the congregations of the oldest and most prestigious Baptist and Methodist churches, perhaps the largest number of such people belonged to the First Congregational Church, where the Ishes, Winfreys, and "many of the best people of the city" worshiped. Smith's family was active in Allison Presbyterian Church, while many of their friends were communicants at St. Philip's Episcopal Church, which, according to a black observer inconsisted largely of "the blue veins," a term used to refer to African Americans who were so near white in complexion as to reveal their blue veins.
Although many of those in Little Rock's black upper class were fair-skinned, the linking of skin color with social status does not appear to have created the mischief in the city that it did elsewhere. But that such a connection was not entirely absent is suggested by the fact that the New Handy Map of Little Rock, published incited St.
Philip's Episcopal Church as "blue-vein, col[ored]. The family appears to have worshiped at Allison Presbyterian Church with the Smiths, their daughter, Florence, and other members of the black "upper crust.
Philip's because of the "glorious music" sung by the Episcopal choir, Still briefly attended services there and even joined the choir.
But wearying of the constant kneeling and rising, he left the "glorious music" of St. Philip's behind to concentrate "on the violin, without calisthenics. The white reporter of the Arkansas Gazette who interviewed Frederick Douglass in 18 89 at the home of Dr. Smith was surprised at the elegance of the Smith residence.
The extensive library, oil paintings, and a variety of musical instruments in the Smith home reflected the family's wide cultural interests. Smith himself was not merely a dentist but also a successful inventor, a talented artist, and a novelist.
One of his paintings was exhibited at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago inand his lengthy novel about miscegenation, Maudelle, appeared in William Grant Still later recalled such social gatherings at the Shepperson home, which was also the meeting place on occasion for the various literary and musical clubs to which his mother belonged. Hand me that switch" 2 and continues with pledges to control him -"I'll just be obliged to make him work, tomorrow, I'll punish him" 3.
Tom constantly finds himself in trouble and creates such a reputation for himself that he gets accused for crimes he does not even commit. When his cousin Sid breaks the sugar bowl, the first thing Aunt Polly does when she finds out is turn to Tom and scold him for it. When she finds out, she feels remorse but realizes she cannot show it for she must maintain her role as disciplinarian - "Then her conscious reproached her, and she yearned to say something kind of loving, but she judged that this would be construed into a confession that she had been wrong; and discipline forbade that" When she believes Tom is dead, she thinks she might have even carried her role of disciplinarian a little to far -"And God forgive me, I cracked Tom's head with a thimble, poor boy, poor dead boy.
But he's out of all his troubles now. And the last words I ever heard him say was to reproach-" In addition to providing discipline, Aunt Polly also attempts to provide spiritual guidance. In an effort to explain her difficulty in raising Tom she justifies -"Well-a-well, man that is born of woman is of a few days and full of trouble, as the scripture says, and I reckon it's so" 3.
Using the Bible, she comes to the unfeminist conclusion that Tom's evil behavior originates in being born to a woman and that it is her duty to fix it. She further reinforces religious values in Tom with a small lesson which references the Edenic apple -"She was so overcome by the splendor of his achievement that she took him into the closet and selected a choice apple and delivered it to him, along with a lecture upon the added value and flavor a treat took to itself when it came without sin through virtuous effort.
And while she closed with a happy Scriptural flourish, he "hooked" a doughnut" By giving him an apple for doing something good, she tries to show that a fruit usually associated with sin will taste a lot better if it is associated with virtue.