Quotes. Important Quotations Explained. Quotes By Theme; Homecoming · Divine justice On his way to the palace of Alcinous, the king of the Phaeacians, Odysseus is She also advises him to direct his plea for help to Arete, the wise and strong with his visitor that he offers Odysseus his daughter's hand in marriage. She is the daughter of King Alcinous and Queen Arete, who live in a giant palace with bronze walls surrounding it. In Greek, her name means 'burner of ships,'. King Alcinous, along with his wife queen Arete, ruled the land of the actions even extend to offering his daughter Nausicaa in marriage (although 2 educator answers; What quotes from The Odyssey illustrate how Odysseus is a hero?.
So much-enduring shining Odysseus prayed there. This is a complex situation, and it is carefully managed so that the two figures, Athena and Arete, do not interfere with each other. Indeed Athena, as soon as she has told Odysseus about Arete, removes herself from the scene by flying to Athens, leaving center stage to the figure that she has just introduced. Thus it is not only respect for Poseidon that keeps Athena from appearing openly to Odysseus.
The hidden identity of Arete simply would not work if it had to compete with the presence of Athena in her own persona. Nausicaa has played her part and attention now shifts to Arete. I have focused first on Arete, arguing that she represents Athena as a mother goddess; but Athena is also of course a virgin goddess, and both sides of her seem to be represented by the Phaeacians.
When Odysseus reaches shore in Phaeacia and falls asleep, Athena contrives to have Nausicaa find him there and bring him part way to town. In the dream in which she appears to Nausicaa she tells the princess that she must go and do her washing in the morning for her wedding is near: Athena then leaves Scheria and goes to Olympus, and just as her second departure identifies her as Athena the city goddess of Athens, her first departure identifies her as Athena the Olympian.
At once beautiful-throned Dawn came, who awakened her, beautiful-robed Nausicaa. There is another parallel between Arete and Nausicaa themselves, and it is, dramatically, the most striking. The silence that follows his appeal raises the level of tension higher still. Only one other moment in the Phaeacian episode compares with this in intensity, namely when Odysseus supplicates Nausicaa.
The stakes are no less high, for Odysseus has just burst nearly naked onto a group of maidens not long from their baths in the river. He went like a lion bred in the mountains, trusting in its might, which goes forth beaten by rain and wind, and the eyes in it burn; and it goes among the cattle or sheep, or after wild deer; and its stomach commands it, after it has made trial of the sheep, even to enter the strong house; so Odysseus was about to mix with the beautiful-haired maidens, naked as he was; for need had come.
The threat that Odysseus poses is of course clear, given his wild appearance. The other maidens all flee, but Nausicaa holds her ground, for Athena gives her courage Odyssey 6. Disfigured by the salt sea he was a frightful sight for them to see, and they fled in all directions to the jutting banks.
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Only the daughter of Alcinous stayed; for Athena put courage in her heart and took fear from her limbs. She stood face to face holding her ground.
Nausicaa most takes on her hidden identity as Athena the virgin warrior when she holds her ground and Odysseus wisely decides to keep his distance and supplicate her from afar. The parallel with Arete is again complete, for it is at the moment of supplication that each of these figures most closely realizes a different aspect of the goddess Athena, one the mother goddess, the other the virgin goddess.
How do such overt comparisons fit with a hidden identity as Athena, the virgin warrior goddess? An overt comparison, moreover, means that one thing is not another, that two things are similar but remain distinct.
How is Nausicaa similar to Artemis? She is a virgin, as we know from the start about this Phaeacian princess. But the comparison with Artemis suggests that she is also more than a virgin princess, that she is also, in terms of her hidden identity, a virgin goddess. I do not think that this point is undermined by the fact that Athena herself gives Nausicaa the courage to stand her ground. Next Odysseus speculates that if she is a goddess she must be Artemis because of her tall stature Odyssey 6.
I grasp your knees, my lady; tell me, are you a god or a mortal? If you are one of the gods who inhabit the wide sky, I think that you most resemble Artemis, daughter of great Zeus, in beauty and stature and build.
Demodocus (Odyssey character) - Wikipedia
Nausicaa was already compared with Artemis because of her tall stature before Odysseus awoke and burst upon the scene, as Nausicaa danced and played with her companions Odyssey 6.
Like arrow-shooting Artemis, who goes forth on the mountains, either on Taygetos or soaring Erymanthos, delighting in boars and swift deer; and field-haunting Nymphs, daughters of aegis-holder Zeus, play with her; and Leto rejoices in her heart; and above all the others she holds her head and brow and is easy to recognize, but all are beautiful; so the untamed maiden stood out among her servants.
Odysseus then takes us a step back from this hidden identity by asking whether she is a goddess or a mortal, and by comparing her with Artemis if she is a goddess.
But if you are one of mortals who live on earth, your father and revered mother are thrice-blest, and your brothers are thrice-blest; surely their heart is always warmed with gladness because of you when they see such a blossoming shoot entering the dance. But he is most blessed of all in his heart, whoever, laden with wedding gifts, leads you home. So that something of the full impact remains in the end a final grace note is added when Odysseus compares Nausicaa to the sacred palm tree of Apollo on Delos Odyssey 6.
For I have never yet seen such a mortal with my eyes, either man or woman; awe holds me as I look at you. Both are given a farewell by Odysseus before he leaves for home.
The farewell to Nausicaa comes earlier, and it, on the other hand, reminds us that she too has played an aspect of the goddess. It is when Odysseus has finished his bath and joined the banqueters for a long night of story-telling that Nausicaa, admiring him, asks that he remember her when he returns home.
Nausicaa, daughter of great-hearted Alcinous, may Zeus, the loud-thundering husband of Hera, now so arrange it that I reach home and see the day of my return; if so I would pray to you as a god even there always and forever; for you brought me back to life, maiden. To Odysseus and to us Nausicaa will forever be a maiden, to whom Odysseus will always pray.
Nausicaa - Greek Mythology Link
But whereas for Arete the key phrase comes first, when her part in the shadow-play of hidden identities is introduced, for Nausicaa the phrase comes last, when her part is over. Alcmena, who had Heracles by Zeus, is introduced as the wife of the mortal Amphitryon, who was the father of Iphicles Odyssey According to the myth Alcmena conceived the two twins by different fathers on the same night. The tale, which became the subject of comedy in Plautus, is told in the epic Shield of Heracles.
Heracles is not called a twin in Odyssey 11, but he is one. In both respects this gives him something important in common with Nestor. A group of three heroines finishes the second half of the catalogue, ending the entire catalogue; Epikaste and her son Oedipus finish the first half of the catalogue. We will consider these passages more closely when we return to the structure of the catalogue as a whole and examine its component parts more critically.
I could not say or name all the wives and daughters of heroes that I saw; immortal night would pass away first. But it is time to sleep, either going to the swift ship and crew or here; but my voyage will be up to the gods and to you. In order to start it up again the Phaeacians must intervene and encourage him to continue. The burden is here shifted from Nestor, who did not bring Odysseus home, to the Phaeacians, who along with the gods will.
The interruption dramatizes this shift. Arete, the queen, is the first to speak. So far she has been rather reserved about Odysseus, but here, for the first time, she expresses complete admiration for him, and she tells the other Phaeacians not to stint on their gifts to him Odyssey White-armed Arete spoke to them first: He is my guest, but each of you has a share in the honor.
So do not rush to send him away, and do not cut short your gifts when he has such need; for many possessions lie in your halls by the will of the gods. Dear people, not at all beside the point or short of expectation does our wise queen speak; be persuaded by her.
But on Alcinous here both word and deed depend. This will be my word, exactly so, if I live and rule over the oar-loving Phaeacians.
But let the stranger be patient, though he longs for his return, and wait until tomorrow, until I make good his whole gift. His voyage will be up to all the men, but most of all to me; for I hold the power in the land. We now see that that responsibility has been shifted to Alcinous in particular, who accepts it: To dramatize this shift Alcinous gets Odysseus to restart his story by asking him if he saw any of his companions from Troy in the underworld Odyssey Odysseus, in answering him, resumes his story, which in due course will take him back out of the underworld and up to the present.
Alcinous has taken over for Nestor symbolically in the underworld, and as Odysseus moves forward from this point he now has Alcinous on his side.
Just as Nestor is the son of the founder of his city, so too is Alcinous. We learn this at the very outset of the Phaeacian episode, when Athena enters the Phaeacian city to appear in a dream to Nausicaa.
The Phaeacians are here introduced as having formerly lived near the Cyclopes, who were stronger than they and brought them harm. Hence godlike Nausithoos moved his people to Scheria, their present home, and built a city for them.
Nausithoos was now dead, and Alcinous ruled in his place Odyssey 6. They once lived in wide Hypereia near the Cyclopes, overbearing men who harmed them, for they were greater in strength. Uprooting his people godlike Nausithoos led them away and settled them in Scheria, far from laboring men, and drove a wall around the city and built dwellings, and made temples of the gods and apportioned fields.
But he had already succumbed to death and gone to Hades, and Alcinoos, knowing counsels from the gods, now ruled. In this passage Nausithoos is called the founder of Scheria, and his role as founder is emphasized by a detailed description of his act: Neleus too was now dead, and Nestor ruled in his place Odyssey 3.
But when early-born rosy-fingered dawn appeared, the Gerenian horseman Nestor rose from bed, and went out and sat on polished stones that were in front of his high doors, white and glistening with oil, on which formerly Neleus would sit, a counselor equal to the gods; but he had already succumbed to death and gone to Hades, and Gerenian Nestor, guardian of the Achaeans, now sat on them holding his scepter. The repeated line, used first of Neleus, then of Nausithoos, occurs nowhere else.
The parallel in diction strongly reinforces the parallel in content, and it begins to appear that the parallel in content is deliberate—that we are meant to be reminded of Neleus and Nestor when we first hear about Nausithoos and Alcinous.
On her first entrance she appeared to Nausicaa in a dream. Now, on her second entrance, she disguises herself as a young maiden, and she encounters Odysseus himself in order to lead him to the Phaeacian palace. Odysseus has already learned from Nausicaa that her parents are Alcinous and Arete, the king and queen. Athena, who like Nausicaa stresses the need to make a favorable impression on the queen, goes on to give Odysseus a genealogy of the royal family, which is the same for the king and queen, since they are not only husband and wife, but also uncle and niece.
Nausithoos, Athena says, was the son of Poseidon and the youngest daughter of a king of the giants named Eurymedon. This otherwise unknown figure destroyed both himself and his reckless people, but his daughter, whose name was Periboia, was apparently spared, for she bore Nausithoos to Poseidon, and Nausithoos became the king of the Phaeacians Odyssey 7.
But he destroyed his reckless people and was himself destroyed. And he who thinks by himself and understands beyond appearances does better, for as Nausicaa herself said, this kind of ordeal is often sent by Zeus" Now, it is up to him who suffers to know how to endure; but it is up to those who have the power to soothe the pain to provide relief.
That is why Nausicaa did not care about who or what was behind Odysseus ' afflictions, but instead declared that he, having come to such a country and city as hers, would not want for clothing or whatever else an outcast naturally may expect from whomever he meets.
Invulnerable land For it is a greater shame for a state to have outcasts roaming among the citizens than for the outcasts themselves to be deprived of what all mortals need. But such a land which is proud of taking care of its citizens, protecting also the weak and the outcasts, lives in safety and strength, enjoying the reverence and respect of all nations.
And that is why Nausicaa, after having this talk with Odysseuscalled back her frightened maids, saying: Don't tell me you take him for an enemy, for there is no man on earth, nor ever will be, who would dare to set hostile feet on Phaeacian soil. Odysseus follows Nausicaa's wagon. Drawing by John Flaxman, Fortune and misfortune As it happens, unfortunate wanderers often put to the test the halls of safety, bringing to light by their mere presence the values that have been cultivated in these, and revealing whether those who are prosperous have learned that the outcasts' misfortune commands their care.
For he who is born with a silver spoon in his mouth should be the first to know its value, and say like Nausicaa: Having said this she ordered her maids to provide the guest with food and drink, and bathe him in the river. Nausicaa's confession Odysseusbeing ashamed to stand naked in the girls' presence, cleaned himself alone, but when he returned, rubbed with oil and dressed, he was no longer the sorry figure Nausicaa and her maids had met.
And the princess, having found him most handsome, commented to her attendants: I only hope that he will choose to stay. Gossip This is how Nausicaa received the stranger. When Odysseus had eaten and drunk, she directed him to his father's palace which was in a city surrounded by high battlements and two harbors, asking him to go by himself the last part of the way in order to avoid the vulgar talk of the sailors, who would no doubt start gossiping, saying things like these: Her future husband no doubt.
So, wishing to avoid the prattle, the girls and Odysseus traveled together through the farmers' lands, but parted before they entered the city, and when Odysseus thought that Nausicaa had reached her father's house he, following her instructions, went by himself to Alcinous' palace.
Remember Nausicaa This is the meeting that the goddess Athena arranged between Nausicaa and Odysseusso that he would be introduced in the Phaeacian court and there receive assistance to return to Ithaca.